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Be Afraid..be Very Afraid !


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#41 SFX

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Posted 24 January 2009 - 09:58 AM

Massive asteroid collision may have sent the moon into a spinA study of lunar craters suggests the side of the moon that now faces Earth was once facing in the opposite direction

http://www.guardian....ollision-impact

#42 SFX

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Posted 10 February 2009 - 10:32 PM

Some 65 million years ago the dinosaurs went extinct and in fact some 75 % of all the species on earth were wiped out

No one knows for sure what casued this

The two main 'serious' theories are the asteroid and volcano theories, both of which make some use of the analysis of the rocks in and around the K-T boundary (the Cretaceous - Tertiary boundary)

The presenece of large Irridium deposists at the time of the extinction may have be caused by extra terrestrial impacts or volcanic activity ( or both)

The prescence of "shocked quartz" in clay layers at the time of the extinction strongly suggest an asteroid impact

If a 10km diameter object impacted at the point at which it struck it would have a velocity of roughly 100,000 km/h. At this velocity there would have been an initial blast (with an estimated force of many millions of tons of TNT) which would have destroyed everything within a radius of between 400 and 500km, including the object. At the same time large fires would have been started by the intense shock wave which would have traveled long distances. Trillions of tons of debris (dust, gases and water vapour) would have been thrown into the atmosphere when the object vaporized. Many enormous tidal waves would be started causing even more damage, the evidence of such waves has been found all the way round the Gulf of Mexico. Along with the tidal waves the blast would also start a chain reaction of earthquakes and volcanic activity there would have also been very high winds caused by the blast. In the days and weeks following the impact the cloud of debris would have been carried over large distances by the post blast high winds. This will have caused months of darkness and a decrease in global temperatures. After this there would have been an increase in temperatures caused by the large amounts of CO2 released by what would have been global fires. Eventually this would cause chemical reactions that would result in the formation of acid rains.

On the land the effects of the impact on the flora and fauna would have been devastating, especially on the large animals which would need large food supplies and on the dinosaurs which would need sun light to keep warm. The global fires would have destroyed considerable amounts of vegetation (by the analysis of the soot in the K-T boundary it is estimated that 25% of the vegetation cover was destroyed), the immediate effect of this would have resulted in the death of the large herbivores. A knock on effect of this would have killed off the large carnivores. Only the small active scavengers, like birds and mammals with the ability to find food from a wide range of sources would have survived. Analysis of the K-T boundary fossils shows that there was a short term takeover of the land by the hardy ferns, which moved into the areas were there had been fires.

In the sea the effects would have been just as dramatic. There would have been a decrease in the oxygen levels in the seawater as low oxygen deep seawater would have been brought up by massive under water currents. This would have resulted in a massive disturbance of the marine food chain through the death of much of the plankton. This would have resulted in the eventual death of the marine reptiles which would have relied on the food chain. There would also have been a massive death rate amongst the shelled sea animals like the ammonites. There could also have been a serious increase in the acidity of the seas caused by the acid rains. This may have also killed off some of the sea species.

The period of recovery would have seen the surviving species moving into the ecological niches left vacant by the dead species. After a short period of time some of the plants that had been burnt down would have regrown from buried seeds or rootstock. As is common with all mass extinctions there would have a sudden evolutionary burst as new species developed. The age of the mammals was beginning.

Now here is the interesting part..the fact that small shrew like mamals were able to profit from the demise of the dinosaurs and, in theory, through evolution result in the appearance of mankind on earth leads me to ask "would man have evolved if it were not for the impact ?"

And more importantly would high intelligent life have evolved ? Is intelligent life that common in the universe ?

The dinosuars were the dominant life forms on earth for over 160 million years yet they never developed advanced intelligence. Viruses and bacteria have been on earth for aeons, the reproduce and mutate at a fantastic rate yet have never developed advanced intelligence

Of all the Billions of species that exist and have exsisted on earth only advanced hominids such as homo sapiens sapiens have developed advanced intelligence

It seems that advanced intelligence is not selected for in evolution, it has no inherrent survival value, in fact it may even be detrimental to a species ( nuclear war etc), of course one day the sun will swallow earth up and advanced intelligence would hopefully have allowed us to leave the planet long before then, unless of course we nuke ourselves back to the stone age

If out of all the billions of species only a handful have developed adavnced intelligence, all of them being hominids then its seems likeley that adnaced intelligence is a very rare thing.

Now if the dinos lived for 160+ million years and did not develop advanced intelligence and yet we did in the space of a few million years ( homo sapiens has only be around for a few hundred thousand years) the next question is if the imapct which killed the dinos off had not occured would highly intelligent life have evolved on earth ?

If the dinos were not made extinct there is no reason to suggest that they would have developed high intelligence, and if they had been made extinct later or earlier it may not have been the mamals that survived. And of course mammalian evolution did not have to lead to hominids or for that matter homo sapiens

So it may be that intelligent life on earth is not only remarkable in that it is so rare but if it had not been for an extinction level event at just the right time then it would never have occured at all

Intelligent life may be INCREDIBLY rare in the galaxy..we may in fact be alone !!!

For more "bizarre" thoughts on this see

http://www.black-and...?showtopic=1136

#43 SFX

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Posted 16 June 2009 - 01:12 PM

In November 2006 the New York Times News Service reported research about "an extraterrestrial impact into the Indian Ocean about 4,800 years ago. Some scientists believe the hit [was] by either a meteor or asteroid…Once they started looking, the evidence was obvious…At the southern end of Madagascar lie…enormous wedge-shaped sediment deposits, called chevrons…and all of them point in the same direction - toward the middle of the Indian Ocean where a newly discovered crater, 18 miles in diameter, lies 12,500 feet below the surface…


"A large asteroid or comet, the kind that could kill a quarter of the world's population, smashed into the Indian Ocean 4,800 years ago [2800 BCE], producing a tsunami at least 600 feet high, about 13 times as big as the one that inundated Indonesia [in December 2004]." - New York Times


Two similar chevrons found in north-central Australia both point out to sea north of the continent, where two more ocean floor craters were found to be about twelve hundred years old. The New York Times report also notes, "It would be a great help if the National Science Foundation sent a ship equipped with modern acoustic equipment to take a closer look."

'No one has spent much time looking for craters in the deep ocean,' said David Morrison, a leading authority on asteroids and comets at the NASA Ames Research Center."

"the evidence is strong enough to overturn current estimates of how often the Earth suffers a violent impact…Instead of once in 500,000 to 1 million years, as astronomers now calculate, catastrophic impacts could happen every few thousand years." - New York Times, Nov. 2006

Was the Christmas 2004 Tsunami Caused By An Asteroid Impact ?

According to geophysicist Gresham Clacy, the tsunami occurred as a direct result of a meteor impact in the sea. The seismic recordings and wave effects are typical of this type of event. The wave front moved out in a circle, which is NOT what you would expect if the energy source had been a linear fault [quake] caused by tectonic plate movement. Meteorite impact would also explain the deaths of marine animals."

Official records show a spike in meteor, asteroid, and comet sightings preceding and following the Christmas Tsunami 2004. From mid November 2004, and then into March, at least 40 known fireballs were reported around the world.

November 13, 2004: A brilliant green fireball is seen shooting across the night sky over North Eastern Australia.


November 15, 2004: A meteorite falls on the house of Phyllis and Larry Rice of Coshocton in Central Ohio.


November 19, 2004: A bright blue meteor is seen streaking over central Florida.


November 24, 2004: The first photograph of a meteorite hitting Earth is taken at the Fort Hill Wharf near Darwin Cenotaph on the Esplanade in Northern Australia

November 27, 2004: A bright blue meteorite crashes into Sri Lank, south of India, creating a crater at Sankabodhi Viharaya in Polonnaruwa

November 30, 2004: A meteor explodes in the atmosphere over Covington County, Florida, making a sound described by one resident as "a very loud shaking noise."


December 3, 2004: A meteor blows up over Richmond, Virginia making a loud boom, while media in New Hampshire and Massachusetts report streaking bright lights in the sky as windows rattle from sonic booms.


December 6, 2004: A large bright meteor, trailing a greenish-blue hue, is seen streaking across the northern coast of New South Wales in Australian before exploding in a series of bright flashes with the force of 1000 tonnes of TNT, shaking people from their sleep and lighting up the sky. A low rumbling sound accompanied the explosions.

December 8, 2004: Asteroid 2004 RZ164 makes a near-Earth flyby at 1.5 million miles. Its diameter is about 700 meters (2296 ft.).

December 9, 2004: A meteor explodes over Saginaw, Michigan, shaking the homes below.


December 10, 2004: Residents in a 20 mile radius around south Houston, Texas are shaken by a rock bursting in the sky.


December 11, 2004: Across Baltimore County and Washington D.C., residents report "a bright ball of fire falling out of the sky."
http://fireballs-met...ember-2004.html

December 11, 2004: A meteor is seen lighting up the sky across the north-western Chinese city of Lanzhou in Gansu Province. It explodes in the suburbs. More than 700 witnesses describe two bright trails of light, and a fireball with a tail of about three meters, darting across the sky. The ground tremble was felt within 100 square km around Lanzhou.

December 14, 2004: People in Salt Lake City, Utah witness a glowing rock streak across the sky and crash to Earth.


December 15, 2004: A flaming rock over the ocean and loud blast in the atmosphere is reported along the cost of the Carolinas.
http://fireballs-met...ember-2004.html


December 16, 2004: The U.S. Missile Defense program, secretly designed to try and hit asteroids, fails another $85 million test.


December 19, 2004: Asteroid 2004 YD5 passes Earth BENEATH the orbits of satellites. The rock went undetected until three days later. It is the second closest pass of an asteroid ever observed by telescope. The closest pass was made by a rock that flew by a few months earlier.

December 19, 2004: On the same day that Asteroid 2004 YD5 narrowly misses Earth, a large meteor is seen by thousands as it streaks Indonesian over Jakarta. In daylight the white fireball is as bright as the Sun before it explodes in the atmosphere.

December 19, 2004: A comment posted at fireballs-meteorites.blogspot.com notes: "So our planet is being rained on by meteorites; big deal, right? Shut out those annoying streaks in the sky and loud booms that are happening with alarming frequency all over the planet, and go back to the concerns of our little lives."
http://fireballs-met...ember-2004.html


ROCK # 20: December 21, 2004: Sonic explosions in the sky cause the ground to shake as windows rattle in north Wales and northwest England. In the past five weeks twenty rocks from space have been seen around the world, reported and recorded in publications. Although highly unusual, the sightings prove to be mere foreshadows of an incredible event yet ahead.


December 23, 2004: Pravda in Russia nervously jests, "Meteor showers to devastate planet Earth…Reports about meteorites appearing in the sky of planet Earth have become much more frequent indeed…Experts do not know why incidents with meteorites have become so frequent."

December 24, 2004: Asteroid 2004 VW14, a rock 800 meters (2625 feet) wide, makes a near-Earth fly-by at just over a million miles (2 million km).


December 25, 2004: During Christmas in America a massive splash in the Indian Ocean triggers the deadly tsunami that wipes out 300,000 people. Was the wave caused by an asteroid?

December 30, 2004: A meteorite crashes into a house in Iran, in the southeastern town of Saravan in Sistan-Baluchestan province

January 3, 2005: A green meteor is seen streaking over Fremont California, while a white one is spotted over Portland, Oregon.
http://www.amsmeteor...reball_log.html


January 4, 2005: Meteors are reported over San Diego in southern California and Duluth, Minnesota. http://www.amsmeteor...reball_log.html


January 5, 2005: Newly discovered Comet Machholz passes Earth close enough to be seen by the naked eye. On the same day, authorities in north central Wisconsin blame "meteor activity" for dozens of reports of lights streaking through the skies, with sonic explosions.


ROCK # 29: January 7, 2005: "Juneau residents saw a fiery ball traversing the sky," reports media about a meteor blazing over Alaska.

January 8, 2005: A green meteor is seen over Norman OK, while an orange one streaks above Casper Wyoming. http://www.amsmeteors.org/fireball/fireball_log.html'


ROCK # 32: January 11, 2005: A huge fireball explodes in the district of Maharashtra near Mumbai India. Geologists and astronomers rush to Vavoshi, near Pen in Raigad district, where pieces of the meteor fall. Newspapers report, "The Astronomical Study and Research Centre…said it appears to be an explosion due to collision of an asteroid with Earth's surface, and the impact was felt over a radius of 50 km."


January 14, 2005: Yellow meteors are reported over Santa Barbara, California and Tallahassee, Florida, while a green one is seen over Barker Reservoir in Colorado. http://www.amsmeteor...reball_log.html


Also on this day, a flaming rock is spotted south of Liverpool in the western England city of Wrexham. "It was a ball moving across the sky, under the cloud cover," said Paul Davies of Rhosddu. "It went across the sky with this fabulous bright blue trail behind it. It had a very short trail and looked intensely hot."


ROCK # 37: January 26, 2005: Reuters: "A meteorite which landed in a former Khmer Rouge zone of northwest Cambodia started fires across rice fields…'It destroyed several hundred hectares of paddy fields,' said Sok Sareth, police chief of Banteay Meanchey. 'It came quickly from the sky and made a noise like a bomb exploding.'"


January 27, 2005: AP: "A spectacular fireball meteor fell from the sky before falling in a neighborhood near Madrid airport…An enormous, incandescent and very red ball gave a tremendous flash."


February 20, 2005: A bright daylight fireball is seen by thousands in southern England from Essex to Cornwall, the Bristol area, and south Wales. The meteor flew north up the Irish Sea coast to the west of Wales

MARCH 12, 2005: Seattle, Washington experiences a 3.3 magnitude earthquake just as a meteor buzzes over the city and electrical power goes out. Local media rushes into spin mode and tells residents that these simultaneous events are not related



Compare the depth of the 2004 quake (2.5 miles) to some other tsunami-generating quakes:



Unimak, Alaska - 4.1.1946: depth 25km / 15.53 miles
Kamchatka, Russia - 11.4.1952: depth 30km / 18.64 miles
Chile - 5.22.1960: depth 33km / <20.51 miles
Prince William Sound, Alaska - 3.27.1964: depth 23km / 14.29 miles
Peru - 10.17.1966: depth 60km / 37.28 miles
Mexico - 9.19.1985: depth 17km / 10.56 miles
Vanimo, New Guinea - 7.17.1999: depth 32km / 19.88 miles
Kocaeli, Turkey - 8.17.1999: depth 17km / 10.56 miles
Vanuatu, SW Pacific - 11.26.1999: depth 33km / 20.51 miles
Honshu, Japan - 9.5.2004: depth 14km / 8.7 miles

MARCH 28, 2005 QUAKE

PBS TV News Hour: "An earthquake struck off the coast of Indonesia today, close to the area where another quake triggered a devastating tsunami in December…but hours later there were no reports that a tsunami had occurred. It struck the same area devastated by another earthquake, one that created a deadly tsunami three months ago…and killed almost three hundred thousand people…In this case [March 2005] the damage was purely from the earthquake…there was no full scale tsunami despite the severity of the tremor…This was the worst hit area in [December], this time though…the tsunami itself never came."

"The relevant question is: how does this relate? How does this rupture relate to the earthquake of December?" - Kerry Sieh, Geology Professor, Caltech - PBS TV News Hour, March 2005


December's quake was made by an asteroid impact. The quake in March came from the crater wall caving in on itself. The space rock at Christmas gouged out a seabed hole with vertical ridges around its edge, a row of mountains jutting up.

Then, three months later, in March, the wall structure settles into position, triggering a second quake as big as the first one in December, but this time there's no tsunami. A quake alone there won't make the wave, an asteroid splash is needed.


"…tears apart the floor of the Indian Ocean…something snapped…the force that actually tore into the earth's crust is 1200 km long…the seafloor lifted, it displaced billions of tons of water above it…this released as much energy as 23,000 Hiroshima-size atom bombs. Part of the ocean floor has been uplifted, and part has been trapped down…Because the seafloor changes, so does the water column above. The seafloor…lifted area basically collapses." - PBS TV NOVA: Wave That Shook the World


This collapse happens three months after the Christmas impact. The unstable crater wall caves in and makes a quake. But this time, in March, there is no tsunami, because an asteroid splash made the wave that rippled rings around the ocean, as if from a pebble tossed in a pond

ABC TV NIGHTLINE: "In December there was a 9.0 magnitude quake. Why didn't this one [in March] produce a big tsunami too?"


Director Groat: "That's a good question. The kind of motion we detected here would give the indication that there was a serious danger of tsunami, and we said so. The fact that it didn't generate one is going to send us back to the scientific drawing board to learn why it didn't."

More evidence of an impact crater comes from the mysterious death, damage, and injuries onboard the USS San Francisco. The official government story is that this submarine, stationed nearby the December earthquake site, "hit the ocean floor" in the days following the tsunami. One sailor was killed and 97 crew members were injured, with 29 of them hospitalized. The front of the sub sustained substantial damage. The bow alone cost $11 million to repair.

Officials say the sub "struck an undersea mountain…hit a seamount that did not appear on the chart."


But, as a Russian naval official told Sorcha Faal, "Make no mistake about it, the American submariners know their courses too well and are too highly trained for this to happen." Indeed, the damaged sub's commander was cited by a Navy admiral for "19 years of exemplary service." The sub's commander knew well the ocean floor terrain in that area where the USS San Francisco is stationed, but he was unaware that a newly formed crater lay in the path of his vessel.

Did the 2004 Gamma Burst have anything to do with the events ?



On December 27, 2004 scientific instruments orbiting Earth are overwhelmed by the brightest gamma ray burst ever seen. Gamma rays, deadly to humans, are the highest form of radiation on the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes X-rays, visible light, and radio waves.


"This is a once in a lifetime event. It's an event that's sometimes characterized as a 'star-quake', a neutron star equivalent of an earthquake."


- Rob Fender, Southampton University - BBC, Feb. 18, 2005

"In December…an exploded star let out a burst of light that outshone the Milky Way's other half-trillion stars combined…Even on Earth, half a galaxy away, the starburst was one of the brightest objects ever observed in the sky…The magnitude of the event caught most astronomers by surprise. 'Whoppingly bright,' said Dr. Brian Gaensler, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. 'It gave off more energy in 0.2 seconds than the Sun does in 200,000 years.' The December 27th pulse registered on instruments aboard 15 spacecraft, including NASA's new Swift satellite, which was designed to record cosmic gamma rays and had been turned on just the week before.


"The radiation pushed in the Earth's ionosphere, an envelope of charged gas at the top of the atmosphere, and distorted long-wavelength radio signals. 'That seems so improbable it's a puzzle right now,' said Dr. Neil Gehrels, the lead scientist for Swift. 'There's something going on here that we don't understand.'


"Astronomers pinpointed the origin of the pulse as a neutron star known as SGR 1806-20, about [30,000] light-years distant in the constellation Sagittarius. The magnetic fields, held in place by the crust of the star, had become twisted, building stress. 'At some point, it gives way like an earthquake,' said Dr. Kevin Hurley, a researcher at the Space Sciences Laboratory at the U. of California, Berkeley. 'It was really the big one,' he said.


"Two giant magnetar flares had been observed previously, one in 1979 and one in 1998. The December 27 flare, however, was 100 times as powerful. 'We had no idea they could make a flare this big,' said Dr. Gaensler. 'Amazingly, the neutron star is still there,' Dr. Gaensler said. 'It did not explode or blow itself apart to bits.'" - New York Times

Associated Press, Dec. 2004: "A Rare Planet Alignment over the Christmas holiday…Mercury, Mars, and Venus…three planets in the south-east."

A star burns out all of its nuclear fuel and collapses in on itself, forming an ultra dense neutron star, in the process it blows off its outer envelop in a fantastic blast, the biggest brightest bombs since the Big Bang. In fact, the oldest and most distant object ever seen from Earth (as of April 2009) is a gamma ray burst that's 13 billion light years away. Astronomers theorize that a quake on the star's surface triggers its twisted magnetic field to explode, like a spring wound too tight past the breaking point. What makes the December 27, 2004 gamma blast unique is that it's the first time a burst this bright has been seen in our galaxy. Other gamma bursts have been detected whose explosions were more powerful, but those bursts came from other galaxies tens of thousands of times more distant, and the light wasn't nearly as bright when it reached Earth.


"Sometimes when stars perish, they unleash the most powerful force in the universe, a radioactive light brighter than a billion trillion suns. Imagine if that power were unleashed upon us…The biggest explosions the universe has seen since the big bang itself. As massive as an explosion can be…Gamma Ray Bursts occur in a few milliseconds to several hundreds of seconds, and during that time the energy they put out is actually more energy than the whole universe in the same period of time."

- ABC TV 20/20 - Last Days On Earth 2006

"Scientists say that a 10-second burst of gamma rays from a massive star explosion within 6,000 light years from Earth could have triggered a mass extinction millions of years ago." - nasa.gov


"A gamma-ray burst originating within 6,000 light years from Earth would have a devastating effect on life…What's most surprising is that just a 10-second burst can cause years of devastating ozone damage." - Dr. Adrian Melott, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas - nasa.gov





"A gamma burst 6000 light years away [from Earth would] cause a mass extinction…1000 light years…would be like standing a couple miles from an atom bomb everywhere on the surface of the Earth…Within 100 light years, then things get very, very bad. It blows away the atmosphere, creates tidal waves, it starts to melt the surface of the Earth." - Stan Woosley, astrophysicist, Univ. of CA Santa Cruz, History Channel - Mega Disasters 2006


Our galaxy has about 400 billion stars within 70,000 light years of Earth. That means there are literally millions of stars within a 6000 light year radius around our planet, the closest being just 4.2 light years away. If just one of these nearby stars sheds a gamma blast, we're all toast. Add these facts to the 2004 explosion, which came from just 30,000 light years away, and the odds are high that in the near future Earth will be blasted by a nearby star.
"A Gamma Ray Burst caused one of the worst mass extinctions in our planet's history. It happened 450 million years ago at a time we now call the Ordovician Period [the second of six of the Paleozoic era, covers between 488 to 443 million years ago]…it's the second most severe extinction that has ever afflicted life on this planet, far more severe than the extinction that eliminated the dinosaurs. Gamma Ray Bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe…If a GRB were to hit the Earth, the atmosphere would take the hit for us…It could happen any time…a force that until a few years ago was a mystery." - Mega Disasters 2006

Gravity Waves

"Stunned astronomers described the greatest cosmic explosion ever monitored…'It was the mother of all magnetic flares - a true monster,' said Kevin Hurley, a research physicist at the University of California at Berkeley…the magnetic fields, which wrestle and overlap because of a star's spin, snap back and reconnect, creating a 'starquake' rather like the competing faults that cause an earthquake." -AP / AFP PARIS Feb. 20, 2005


"Starquake…like the competing faults that cause an earthquake." The quake in the Indian Ocean in 2004 was caused by a ripple effect from the gamma blast, in the form of a gravity wave that pushed ahead of the explosion itself, arriving weeks in advance of the December 27th light burst.


GRAVITY WAVE PRECEDES BURST


"Starburst Was One of Brightest Objects Observed on Earth - [astrophysicist] Dr. Gaensler and his colleagues used radio telescopes to track the shock wave radiating outward from the star. They were surprised to find the bubble expanding at a third of the speed of light. 'Which is not what you tend to see in the galaxy every day,' he said." - New York Times Feb. 18, 2005

"Astronomers theorize that gamma ray bursts travel in association with gravity wave bursts. In the course of their flight through space, gamma rays…travel slower than their associated gravity wave burst…gravity waves would…be expected to precede them."

"The December [tsunami] earthquake was 10 times stronger than any other earthquake during the past 25 years, and was followed just hours later on December 27th by a super gamma ray burst that is 100 times brighter than any other that's been observed…It seems difficult to pass off the proximity of these two events as being coincidence. For two such unique events to have such a close time proximity is highly improbable if they are not somehow related…gravity waves would very likely be associated with gamma ray bursts, and they would be expected to precede them."

"Experiments carried out by Eugene Podkletnov show that a shock front outburst produces a longitudinal gravitational wave that travels forward with the burst. He has found that this gravity wave pulse has a speed in excess of 64 times the speed of light…the gravity wave will have obtained a head start over the electromagnetic wave radiation component traveling in its wake. "

hmm.please don't ask me to explain superluminal ( faster than light) gravity waves..it's beyond my physics !!! - SFX

"Effects on the Earth were not due to the cosmic rays themselves, but to the cosmic dust that these cosmic rays transported into the Solar System. The Solar System is presently immersed in a dense cloud of cosmic dust, material that is normally kept at bay by the outward pressure of the solar wind. But, with the arrival of this Galactic cosmic ray volley, the solar wind was overpowered, and large quantities of this material were pushed inward." - Dr. Paul LaViolette

This 2004 gravity wave, leading ahead of the burst, brushed thousands of rocks back, reversing the solar wind, pushing them through space and into the skies around Earth where the blast was headed.


Throughout December 2004 the spike in sightings of these meteors is recorded in official publications worldwide. A simultaneous alignment of planets nearby made gravity lanes to steer the rocks at us,




"As the [Dec. 2004] radiation stormed through our solar system, it blitzed at least 15 spacecraft, knocking their instruments off-scale whether or not they were pointing in the [originating star's] direction…The flare also ripped atoms apart, ionizing them, in much of the Earth's ionosphere for five minutes, to a deeper level than even the biggest solar flares do."

- McDonald Observatory, Feb. 2005


In the aftermath of the December burst a swarm of space rocks sucked along by its gravity wave continued to bombard Earth. Another 19 meteors are reported around the world in the weeks after the 2004 gamma blast.


January 10, 2005: The Albuquerque Tribune reports, "Meteor Could Cause Big Tsunami - Los Alamos National Laboratory Is Watching the Sky for Tsunamis…the potential for an asteroid-caused tsunami remains a threat the world should watch out for, said Galen Gisler, a Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist. 'Every 10,000 years or so, we should get a tsunami from an asteroid, and we haven't had one in about that amount of time,' Gisler said…That warning could…prevent another disaster like the recent tsunami in the Indian Ocean, he said." This Albuquerque Tribune article assumes the 2004 tsunami was not caused by an asteroid. It's a trick of the elite called "seeding the media" - setting examples for us to follow their lead and assume there was no rock.


February 4, 2005: Reuters reports, "U.S. Navy Surveying Waters Near Tsunami Epicenter…for signs that last month's devastating Indian Ocean tsunami altered the sea bed…Marshall Islands Asia-Pacific maritime authorities issued an advisory that said the earthquake and tsunami may have been powerful enough to alter sea depths…the tsunami may have reduced water depths in the Aceh sea bed by as much as 3,000 ft. But some experts say such a massive change may not be plausible, but that the sea bed likely changed. 'Tsunamis…may pile up between 10 to 20 meters (30 to 65 ft) of sediment but that won't account for a thousand-meter change,' said David Higgitt, associate professor of geography at the National University of Singapore."

February 4, 2005, Space.com: "There has been no event like [Apophis] in modern history…The 2029 event will be the closest brush by a good-sized asteroid known to occur. The rock will pass Earth inside the orbits of some satellites. No other asteroid has ever been clearly visible to the unaided eye…scientists said it has the highest odds of hitting Earth ever given to a space rock…The 2029 flyby will bend the rock's path and change the circumstances of later close passes to Earth."


"Flyby will bend the rock's path and change the circumstances" - what's left unsaid is that many astronomers don't agree this rock will pass us by. Those who know it will hit remain silent.

On March 2, 2009 an asteroid came within 38 thousand miles of hitting Earth. Orbiting satellites are 20 thousand miles high.

The asteroid was spotted just five days earlier by an academic astronomer using his home telescope. Had this professor been working for a government agency, news of this asteroid's near miss would have been suppressed. Around 100 potentially harmful asteroids are found each year, but rocks coming near Earth that are found by government agencies go unreported in media.

On June 10, 2009 a Space.com article titled "Military Hush-Up" reported: "Scientists have benefited from data gleaned by U.S. satellites of natural fireball events [meteors] in Earth's atmosphere - but no longer. A recent U.S. military policy decision now explicitly states that observations by government spacecraft of incoming bodies and fireballs are classified secret and are not to be released. Scientists say not only will research into the threat from space be hampered, but public understanding…will be diminished…Where the space-based surveillance truly shines is over remote stretches of ocean…But all that ended within the last few months, leaving scientists blind-sided and miffed by the shift in policy. scientists want to know about these events so they can better predict the risk here on Earth. 'Fireball data together with astronomical observations of larger near-Earth asteroids define the nature of the impact hazard and allow rational planning to deal with this issue,' said David Morrison a Near Earth Object (NEO) scientist at NASA's Ames Research Center, 'so it's ironic that the availability of these fireball data should be curtailed just at the time the NEO program is moving toward surveying the smaller impactors that are most likely to be picked up in the monitoring program. These data have been available to the scientific community. It's unfortunate this information is now shut off just when it's becoming more valuable to the community interested in characterizing near Earth asteroids and protecting our planet from asteroid impacts.'" - Space.com, June 2009

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Posted 27 July 2009 - 12:54 AM

California's Channel Islands hold evidence of Clovis-age comets
University of Oregon-led research team digs up strongest evidence yet for a controversial cosmic event

A 17-member team has found what may be the smoking gun of a much-debated proposal that a cosmic impact about 12,900 years ago ripped through North America and drove multiple species into extinction

Interestingly 12900 years ago fits well with the controversial dataing of the sphinx to c 10500 bc, the layout of the giza pyramids and the cambodian temples all linked to 10500 BC

http://www.eurekaler...o-cci071809.php

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Posted 02 August 2009 - 03:35 AM

Comets May Have Given Us Our Oceans

Icy comets – not rocky asteroids – launched a dramatic assault on the Earth and moon around 3.85 billion years ago, a new study of ancient rocks in Greenland suggests. The work suggests much of Earth's water could have been brought to the planet by comets.

http://www.newscient...arred-face.html


Plantinum may be extraterrestrial

http://www.physorg.c...s168184418.html

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Posted 11 August 2009 - 01:27 PM

Revelation 8:6-13, King James version: "8:6 And the seven angels which had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound. 7 The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up. 8 And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood; 9 And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died; and the third part of the ships were destroyed. 10 And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters; 11 And the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter. 12 And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise. 13 And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels, which are yet to sound!"

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Posted 11 August 2009 - 02:10 PM

Attached File  ct_33_planisphere.jpg   106.56KB   4 downloads Ancient record of asteroid impact UK space scientists have discovered what they claim is an account of a devastating asteroid impact in Europe five thousand years ago. The disaster is chronicled on a mysterious clay tablet that has been stored in the British Museum since geologists found it in the 19th century. The tablet pictures an asteroid so big that its shape could be made out with the naked eye while it was still in space. Alan Bond and Mark Hempsell worked out that the asteroid, nearly a mile wide, struck Köfels in Austria as a blazing fireball. The tablet had been nicknamed the Planisphere because it shows drawings of the constellations and text listing their names. It was made by an Assyrian scribe and was discovered among 22,000 tablets in the remains of the Royal Palace at Nineveh in what is now Iraq. Space entrepreneur Bond and astronautics lecturer Hempsell, of Bristol University, used powerful computer programs to analyse the events depicted on the Planisphere. They discovered it is a copy of a notebook made by a Sumerian astronomer recording events in the sky before dawn on June 29, 3123 BC. The scientists found that half of the tablet notes planet positions and cloud cover, but the rest shows how the asteroid appeared in the heavens. By analysing the record of the asteroid's trajectory, the scientists linked the event to a giant landslide in Austria. Researchers had suggested in the 20th century that the landslide was due to a meteor impact but were puzzled by the lack of a crater. The newly uncovered record shows that this is because the asteroid flew in at a low angle and clipped the top of Mount Gamskogel in the Austrian Alps. This caused the asteroid to explode before it hit the ground seven miles ahead, pulverising the rock. The scientists say the exploding asteroid would have caused a back plume along its path across the Middle East and Mediterranean. Mr Hempsell said: "The ground heating would be enough to ignite any flammable material, including human hair and clothes. It is probable more people died under the plume than in the Alps due to the impact blast." Bond and Hempsell describe their work in translating the tablet in a new book, A Sumerian Observation Of The Kofels' Impact Event, published today. Scientists are busy working out ways to protect the Earth against future asteroid impacts.

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Posted 11 August 2009 - 02:48 PM

Italian geologist Luigi Piccardi and archaeologist Bruce Masse recently teamed to co-edit Myth and Geology (2007-Geological Society of London Special Publication 273), the first professional textbook on the nascent subdiscipline of geomythology. Geomythology pairs geological evidence of catastrophic events and reports of such events encoded into the mythological lexicon of ancient societies Some of the world fire stories quite explicitly describe the impacts of celestial objects. The Toba-Pilaga of the Gran Chaco, for example, speak of a time when fragments of the moon fell to earth, igniting a fire that incinerated the whole world, burning people alive and leaving corpses floating in the lagoons. Evidence suggests that this event may be associated with the Campo del Cielo impact crater field in northern Argentina dated around 4500 years ago. In the highlands of Brazil there are stories of Sun and Moon fighting for a red feather ornament, which fell to earth together with hot coals that started a world fire so hot that even the sand burned. But the stories of the great flood give even more cause for thought. In South America it is the most commonly reported worldwide catastrophe. Masse found it in 171 myths among groups scattered from Tierra del Fuego in the south to the far northwest part of the continent. It is consistently the earliest disaster, always reported prior to the world fire, falling sky and darkness. In the vast majority of cases only a single great flood is described, which Masse thinks makes it unlikely that it represents recollection of local or regional flooding. And South America isn't the only place it occurs. Of course, the biblical story of Noah's flood is well known, as is the related Mesopotamian story of Gilgamesh and the flood. Many explanations have been advanced for these flood stories and others in the Middle East, most involving regional events like the sudden flooding of the Black Sea in the early Holocene. Back in 1994 Alexander and Edith Tollmann foreshadowed Masse's research by proposing a cosmic impact as the cause of a worldwide flood in about 9600 BC. The Tollmann's proposal has been widely rejected by scholars, and Masse is very critical of it, saying that the Tollmanns "mix the Biblical creation myth with flood myths, and make generalizations not warranted by the myths they use." Masse emphasizes the need to apply to myth research the same rigorous standards applied to other kinds of scientific study. Attempting to apply such standards, Masse examined a worldwide sample of flood myths in 175 different cultures all over the world (most gathered and reported by noted anthropologist Sir James George Frazer in the early 1900s)--representing about 15% of the "great flood" myths that have been published in English. He hypothesized that if these myths reflected a single worldwide cataclysm, then the information encoded in them--the environmental aspects of the flood that they describe--should form a pattern across cultures that is consistent with a single event. Collectively they should create a plausible description of the event as experienced in different parts of the world, and that description should be consistent with archaeological and geophysical data. He analyzed his 175 myths with this hypothesis in mind, and found that "only a globally catastrophic deep-water oceanic comet impact can account for all the environmental information encoded in the corpus of worldwide flood myths." The majority of the myths describe a torrential, long-duration rainstorm, in many cases accompanied by a huge tsunami. The water is often described as hot, sometimes coming as hot ocean swells, sometimes as burning rain. The described durations of the flood storm in the various myths, when plotted, form a bell-shaped curve with the great majority clustering between four and ten days. Tsunamis are described as extending between 15 and 100 km inland. Survivors typically find refuge in places between 150 and 300 meters above sea level. Supernatural creatures are associated with the flood storm in nearly half the cases Masse studied. Typical are giant snakes or water serpents, giant birds, giant horned snakes, a fallen angel, a star with fiery tail, a tongue of fire, and similar elongated things in or from the sky. Looking in detail at descriptions in the mythology, particularly those of the Indian subcontinent, Masse sees a close resemblance to the naked-eye appearance of a near-earth post-perihelion comet. Sixteen of the myths Masse examined describe when the flood storm occurred in terms of seasonal indicators. Fourteen myths are from Northern Hemisphere groups, and place the event in the spring. The one from the Southern Hemisphere places it in the fall--that is, spring north of the equator. Seven stories give the time in terms of lunar phase--six at the time of the full Moon, another two days later. Stories from Africa and South America say it happened at the time of a lunar eclipse, which can only occur when the Moon is full. A 4th century BC Babylonian account specifies a full Moon in late April or early May. Chinese sources recount how the cosmic monster Gong Gong knocked over a pillar of heaven and caused flooding toward the end of the reign of Empress Nu Wa, around 2810 BC. The 3rd century BC Egyptian historian Manetho says there was an "immense disaster" (but doesn't say what kind) during the reign of the pharaoh Semerkhet, around 2800 BC. The tomb of Semerkhet's successor, Qa'a, was built of poorly dried mud bricks and timbers showing unusual decay; the following pharaohs of the second dynasty relocated the royal cemetery to higher ground. Masse's analysis of astrological references in multiple myths from the Middle East, India and China--describing planetary conjunctions associated with the flood storm, whose actual times of occurrence can be reconstructed using contemporary astronomy software--leads him to conclude that the event happened on or about May 10, 2807 BC. What was it that happened? Masse thinks the myths provide clues to that, too. For one thing, they report massive rain, falling for days at a time. This turns out to be exactly what can be expected if a large comet plunged into the deep ocean--it would loft nearly ten times its mass of water into the upper atmosphere, where it would spread widely and then fall, taking days to empty the skies. A large impact in the ocean would also cause gigantic tsunamis, as many of the myths report. In India, for example, Tamil myths tell of the sea rushing 100 km inland, a hundred meters deep. Plotting the distribution of great flood myths together with specific reported phenomena like directions from which great winds blew or tsunamis came, Masse finds that the most efficient way to account for them is by positing a very large comet impact in the central or southern Indian Ocean. This might not account very well for flood myths in the Americas, but Masse thinks that flooding there could have resulted from partial disintegration of the incoming comet, with two or more pieces falling on different parts of the earth over a period of hours or days. Some of the myths speak of multiple events happening in close succession. But the really big impact, he thinks, the most lethal of the bunch, occurred somewhere south of Madagascar. Where, it turns out, there is a possible impact crater on the sea floor 1500 kilometers southeast of Madagascar. Named Burckle Crater and discovered only recently by Masse's colleague Dallas Abbott from Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, it is a little under 30 km in diameter and is visible on bathymetric maps. Stratigraphic cores taken near there suggest that it is an impact crater, but are not definitive. The Burckle Crater needs more study, but it is 3800 meters deep, so it's not an easy place to explore. More readily accessible is the southern coast of Madagascar where recently studied chevron-shaped dune deposits of potential tunamic origin may be indicative of giant waves more than 200 meters in height. Masse and Abbott have joined together with more than 25 other scientists to form the "Holocene Impact Working Group," to better explore Burckle Crater, Madagascar, and other locations bearing potential Holocene physical evidence of impact. If Masse is right, a comet impact big enough to have devastating effects on human civilization occurred in 2807 BC--a bit under 5,000 years ago. Other smaller impacts and airbursts have happened since then--the most recent being at Sikhote Alin near Vladivostok in 1947. None of these were as devastating as the K-T event that doomed the dinosaurs, but many were big enough to wipe out cities or whole nations if there had been any in the vicinity at the time. And the 2807 BC event, to judge from the myths, made the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami look like a ripple on the beach. The Past as Prologue Would confirmation of a civilization-killing impact 5,000 years ago mean that another one is likely tomorrow or the next day? No, but the more large impacts there have been in the recent past, the more troubling become our prospects for the future. In fact, in the November 2007 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, physicist Richard Firestone and colleagues suggest that the major climatic perturbations and extinctions at the beginning of the Younger Dryas event some 12,900 years ago were caused by an comet impact even more catastrophic than that of the 2807 BC event. Masse's research highlights the importance not only of studying Earth's past for evidence of impacts, but of searching space for the NEOs that may be incoming. It also shows that when it comes to identifying impacts that have occurred over the last few thousand years, geophysical research isn't the only game in town. Archaeology and the study of humankind's oral traditions have unique contributions to make as well.

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Posted 17 August 2009 - 12:04 PM

Near-Earth asteroid found to be triplets
Rare system came within 1.56 million miles of planet on June 10 2009

New radar observations have revealed that a near-Earth asteroid is actually three rocks.

The system, asteroid 1994 CC, was imaged by NASA's Goldstone Solar System Radar on June 12 and 14. The results were released this week.

While most asteroids roam in a belt between Mars and Jupiter, some are kicked or drawn inward and cross our orbital path around the sun. Some 15 percent of these near-Earth asteroids are binaries. Even fewer, a mere one percent, are triples.

1994 CC, which came within 1.56 million miles (2.52 million km) of Earth on June 10 (about six times farther away than our moon), is only the second triple system known in the near-Earth population.

The three-rock setup consists of a central object about 2,300 feet (700 meters) in diameter that has two smaller moons revolving around it. Preliminary analysis suggests that the satellites are at least 164 feet (50 m) in diameter.

Asteroids are often loose rubble piles rather than solid objects, and pairs are common. In a 2008 study, scientists found that binaries can be created when energy from sunlight, over long periods of time, splits a loose asteroid in two.

Radar observations at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, led by the center's director Mike Nolan, also detected all three objects, and the combined observations from Goldstone and Arecibo will be used by JPL scientists and their colleagues to study 1994 CC's orbital and physical properties.

The next comparable Earth flyby for asteroid 1994 CC will occur in the year 2074 when the space rock trio will fly past us at a distance of 1.6 million miles (2.5 million km).



Traces of Planet Collision Found

A Nasa space telescope has found evidence of a high-speed collision between two burgeoning planets orbiting a young star.

Astronomers say the cosmic smash-up is similar to the one that formed our Moon some four billion years ago, when a Mars-sized object crashed into Earth.

In this case, two rocky bodies are thought to have slammed into one another in the last few thousand years.

Details are to be published in the Astrophysical Journal.

The collision involved one object that was at least as big as our Moon and another that was at least as big as Mercury.

The impact destroyed the smaller body, vaporising huge amounts of rock and flinging plumes of hot lava into space.

Infrared detectors on Nasa's Spitzer Space Telescope were able to pick up the signatures of the vaporised rock, along with fragments of hardened lava, known as tektites.

Melted glass

"This collision had to be huge and incredibly high-speed for rock to have been vaporised and melted," said lead author Carey M Lisse of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory at Laurel in Maryland, US.

"This is a really rare and short-lived event, critical in the formation of Earth-like planets and moons. We're lucky to have witnessed one not long after it happened."

Dr Lisse and his team observed a star called HD 172555, which is about 12 million years old and situated about 100 light-years away in the far southern constellation Pavo (the Peacock).

The astronomers used a spectrograph instrument on Spitzer to look for the fingerprints of chemicals in the spectrum of light from the star.

The researchers identified large amounts of amorphous silica - melted glass.

Silica can be found on Earth in obsidian rocks and tektites.

Obsidian is black, shiny volcanic glass. Tektites are hardened chunks of lava thought to have formed when meteorites hit the Earth.

Large quantities of orbiting silicon monoxide gas were also detected, created when much of the rock was vaporised. In addition, the astronomers found rocky rubble that was probably flung out from the planetary wreck.

The two bodies must have been travelling at a speed of at least 10km/s (about 22,400mph) relative to one other before the collision.



Rocky planets form and grow in size by colliding and sticking together. This process merges their cores and causes some of their surfaces to be shed.

Though things have settled down in the Solar System today, impacts still occur, as was observed last month when a small comet or asteroid struck Jupiter.

"The collision that formed our Moon would have been tremendous, enough to melt the surface of Earth," said co-author Geoff Bryden of Nasa's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California.

"Debris from the collision most likely settled into a disc around Earth that eventually coalesced to make the Moon. This is about the same scale of impact we're seeing with Spitzer."

"We don't know if a moon will form or not, but we know a large rocky body's surface was red hot, warped and melted."

The Spitzer telescope has witnessed the dusty aftermath of large impacts before, but did not find evidence for rock that had been melted and vaporised.

Instead, large amounts of dust, gravel, and boulder-sized rubble were observed, indicating collisions that were slower-paced.


Asteroid Impact Craters on Earth as Seen From Space

http://www.wired.com.../impactcraters/

NASA cannot keep up with killer asteroids
Congress assigned mission four years ago, but never gave NASA money

WASHINGTON - NASA is charged with spotting most of the asteroids that pose a threat to Earth but does not have the money to complete the job, a U.S. government report says.

That is because even though Congress assigned the space agency that mission four years ago, it never gave NASA the money to build the necessary telescopes, according to the report released Wednesday by the National Academy of Sciences.

Specifically, the mission calls for NASA, by the year 2020, to locate 90 percent of the potentially deadly rocks hurtling through space. The agency says it has been able to complete about one-third of its assignment with the current telescope system.

NASA estimates that there are about 20,000 asteroids and comets in our solar system that are potential threats. They are larger than 460 feet (140 meters) in diameter — slightly smaller than a sports stadium in New Orleans. So far, scientists know where about 6,000 of these objects are.

Rocks between 460 feet and 3,280 feet (1,000 meters) in diameter can devastate an entire region, said Lindley Johnson, NASA's manager of the near-Earth objects program. Objects bigger than that are even more threatening, of course.

Just last month astronomers were surprised when an object of unknown size and origin bashed into Jupiter and created an Earth-sized bruise that is still spreading. Jupiter does get slammed more often than Earth because of its immense gravity, enormous size and location.

Disaster movies like "Armageddon" and near misses in previous years may have scared people and alerted them to the threat. But when it comes to monitoring, the academy concluded "there has been relatively little effort by the U.S. government."

And the United States is practically the only government doing anything at all, the report found.

"It shows we have a problem we're not addressing," said Louis Friedman, executive director of the Planetary Society, an advocacy group.



NASA calculated that to spot the asteroids as required by law would mean spending about $800 million between now and 2020, either with a new ground-based telescope or a space observation system, Johnson said. If NASA got only $300 million it could find most asteroids bigger than 1,000 feet (300 meters) across, he said.

But so far NASA has gotten neither sum.

It may never get the money, said John Logsdon, a space policy professor at George Washington University.

"The program is a little bit of a lame duck," Logsdon said. There is not a big enough group pushing for the money, he said.

At the moment, NASA has identified about five near-Earth objects that pose better than a 1-in-a-million risk of hitting Earth and being big enough to cause serious damage, Johnson said. That number changes from time to time, as new asteroids are added and old ones are removed as information is gathered on their orbits.

The space rocks astronomers are keeping a closest eye on are a 430-foot (130-meter) diameter object that has a 1-in-3,000 chance of hitting Earth in 2048 and a much-talked about asteroid, Apophis, which is twice that size and has a one-in-43,000 chance of hitting in 2036, 2037 or 2069.

Last month, NASA started a new Web site for the public to learn about threatening near-Earth objects

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Posted 01 October 2009 - 07:35 PM

Sept 2002 Siberian Impact Eyewitnesses saw the sky light up. More than a hundred people in the sparsely settled area reported seeing it. At least one person fell to the floor in horror, believing that some religious doomsday had arrived. Others were sure that nuclear war had broken out. The region was in an accustomed power blackout that night. But even as the meteor’s visible energy lit up the skies outside, its strong electrical field activated the power grid. Residents reported that the lamps in their homes turned on for a few seconds. People who were outside heard a buzzing, crackling sound in the air. The tops of fence posts lit up with electrical discharges. The impact shattered windows for a dozen miles around and was felt up to 60 miles away. Scientists in Irkutsk recorded “seismic waves comparable to a middle-power earthquake.” Early reports indicated that local people may have suffered mild radiation poisoning, symptomized by aching joints, kidney problems and high blood pressure. Hunters who first explored the area near the presumed impact reported an area of downed trees surrounded by charred forest. The Institute of Solar and Earth Physics of the Siberian division of the Russian Academy of Sciences wanted to investigate, but was hampered by a lack of funds and the remoteness of the area. It was May 2003 before a scientific expedition could reach the hilly forests of Bodaibo, northeast of Irkutsk, and Lake Baikal. Scientists found about 40 square miles of trees smashed in the pattern associated with big explosions. The meteorite had broken up before hitting the ground and left a score of craters, up to 65 feet in diameter. Nearby tree stumps were shattered or burned. A U.S. spy satellite that had picked up the blazing ball at about 40 miles altitude lost it a little below 20 miles: It’s possible that’s where the ball exploded. U.S. military analysts estimated the explosion as equivalent to 0.2 to 0.5 kilotons, though Russian physicist Andrey Olkhovatov placed it much higher at 4 to 5 kilotons. No large fragments were found, only tiny hollow spheres, generally less than 0.1 to 0.2 millimeters diameter. The brown and dark-brown particles contained oxide and silicate minerals typical of meteorites, along with pyrite with nickel content, and various iron compounds. None of these is typical of the local geology. Some sources say gamma radiation was at background level, but others say local water samples showed high levels of tritium, along with radioactive isotopes of cobalt and cesium. Whether the fireball was rock that pulverized or, as some Russian scientists concluded, an icy comet, there’s this scary fact to consider: It was not picked up in advance by any existing warning systems. If the fireball had exploded on or over a major city, it could have killed tens of thousands of people.

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Posted 10 November 2009 - 01:54 PM

Comets Didn't Wipe out Sabertooths, Early Americans?

A comet impact didn't set off a 1,300-year cold snap that wiped out most life in North America about 12,900 years ago, scientists say.

Though no one disputes the occurrence of the frigid period, known as the Younger Dryas, more and more researchers have been unable to confirm a 2007 finding that says a collision triggered the change.

The earlier study says the drop in temperature, plus fires from the purported impact, wiped out sabertooths, mastodons, and other giant animals, and may have caused the decline of an early civilization known as the Clovis culture.

The 2007 research was based on a combination of archaeological artifacts and extraterrestrial magnetic grains in soil samples found in a thin layer of sediment throughout North America.

The original team, led by Richard Firestone, a nuclear chemist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, also found what he said are traces of charcoal and microscopic bits of carbon from intense fires ignited by the collision.

However new research, presented at a meeting of the Geological Society of America this week in Portland, Oregon, has taken aim at all of these findings.

Wetlands and Mini-Meteorites

Nicholas Pinter, a geologist at Southern Illinois University, argued that black mats described as charcoal in the 2007 research weren't actually charcoal.

Instead they were from ancient, dark soil formed in a long-ago wetland, Pinter said.

"It's a misunderstanding of what these layers represent."

Likewise, the small amounts of carbon "are not uniquely associated with high-intensity fire," he said.


http://news.national...xtinctions.html

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Posted 17 November 2009 - 04:53 AM

Asteroid-watchers say a space rock about as big as a garage came within 9,000 miles (14,000 kilometers) of Earth in November 2009, just 15 hours after it was detected. Experts quickly determined that the asteroid 2009 VA would miss us - and even if it came directly at us, it wouldn't have caused a catastrophe. Nevertheless, the close encounter serves as a reminder that someday a much bigger rock may well hit us and that it's best to be prepared. In this week's recap of the event, NASA's Near-Earth Object Program Office reported that 2009 VA came well within the moon's orbit - so close, in fact, that the asteroid's orbital path was bent by Earth's gravitational pull. NASA and other space agencies around the world have been keeping increasingly close track of near-Earth asteroids and comets, with a strong assist from amateur astronomers. In this case, the object was first detected by the Catalina Sky Survey at the University of Arizona. It was quickly identified by the Minor Planet Center in Cambridge, Mass., as a close-approaching asteroid. Then NASA experts worked out its orbit and gave the all-clear. Why wasn't the rock found sooner? Well, smaller objects are more difficult to detect in advance, and this one was estimated to be only 7 meters (23 feet) wide. That's nowhere near as big as the 10-kilometer-wide (6-mile-wide) object that apparently did in the dinosaurs 65 million years ago - or even the 30-meter-wide (100-foot-wide) Tunguska object that was thought to have wreaked destruction in a Siberian forest in 1908. For what it's worth, the Defense Department's Joint Space Operations Center tracks about 19,000 orbital objects down to the size of 10 centimeters (4 inches), and NASA tracks bits of space junk that are even smaller. But incoming near-Earth objects are trickier to track until they're almost upon us. In the close-but-no-collision category, this one was No. 3 on NASA's list for cataloged asteroids: A meter-wide (yard-wide) asteroid came within 6,150 kilometers (3,821 miles) in October 2008, while another space rock about the size of 2009 VA passed within 6,535 kilometers (4,060 miles) in March 2004. If 2009 VA had entered the atmosphere, it almost certainly would have blown itself up before hitting the ground - just as a larger asteroid did a month ago, without warning, in the skies over Indonesia. A somewhat smaller asteroid met a similar fate in the skies over Africa about 13 months ago. (Months later, students in Sudan found 4 kilograms (8.7 pounds) of meteorites that fell to Earth after last year's blast.) Such atmospheric blow-ups release energy equivalent to about a kiloton of TNT. In comparison, the Hiroshima atomic bomb set off a roughly 15-kiloton blast. So, for several reasons, we shouldn't hit the alarm button over 2009 VA. But that doesn't mean we should hit the snooze button, either: The Indonesia blast and the surprise pummeling that Jupiter took back in July are just foretastes of nasty surprises that could be waiting for us. The more we know about asteroids and how to fend them off, the better.

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Posted 13 January 2010 - 08:58 PM

NASA Scientists Say Martian Meteorite May Have Brought Life to Earth

New analytical data supposedly backs the case for Martian life having once existed

Martians may have already landed on Earth, at least in ancient microbial form. The same NASA team that discovered the controversial Allen Hills meteorite has shared new data that points to a biological origin for structures within the Martian rock, Spaceflight Now reports. NASA headquarters plans to officially address the new findings within days.

The Allen Hills meteorite sparked a huge debate in 1996 when both NASA and the White House announced the possible discovery of life from the red planet. President Bill Clinton gave a speech at the time that could perhaps sound prescient, if the new findings put scientific doubts to rest.

"It speaks of the possibility of life. If this discovery is confirmed, it will surely be one of the most stunning insights into our universe that science has ever uncovered," Clinton said.

http://www.popsci.co...-life-after-all

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Posted 13 January 2010 - 09:13 PM

Lunar water probably came from come from comets HOUSTON: In a discovery that may solve the mystery behind the source of moon's water, an evidence from NASA's LCROSS mission suggested that much of it was delivered by comets that slammed into the Earth's satellite billions of years ago. Previous missions had also found hints of lunar water but its source was never clear. One idea is that it forms when hydrogen atoms from the solar wind latch onto oxygen atoms in the lunar soil, creating hydroxyl and water. According to the data revealed recently at the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group meeting, a gathering of 160 lunar scientists in Houston, the evidence is mounting in favour of an alternative explanation - comet impacts. The first line of evidence comes from compounds that vaporise readily, called volatiles. LCROSS found spectral signs of volatiles containing carbon and hydrogen - likely methane and ethanol - as well as others such as ammonia and carbon dioxide, journal New Scientist reported. "It appears that we impacted into a very volatile-rich area," LCROSS principal scientist Tony Colaprete said. These compounds should have been mostly lost to space billions of years ago, when the moon coalesced from the debris of an impact between the Earth and a Mars-sized object. Water formed through an interaction with the solar wind would therefore be relatively pure - and free of volatiles. But comets, which are thought to have been responsible for many of the moon's impact scars, are "dirty iceballs" known to contain volatiles such as methane.

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Posted 30 January 2010 - 09:57 PM

Some great images of earth impact craters

http://news.discover...slide-show.html

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Posted 31 January 2010 - 02:04 PM

Russia To Send Asteroid Apophis Back into Deep Black Space Russia’s Federal Space Agency Roscosmos will start working on a project to save planet Earth from the collision with Asteroid Apophis, which, as scientists predict, may happen in 2036 Anatoly Perminov, the head of Roscomos, said in an interview with the Voice of Russia Radio Station that the flight trajectory of the massive asteroid was gradually approaching the Earth. A scientist, who shared the information with Mr. Perminov, also told the official that Apophis was three times as large as the legendary Tunguska Meteorite NASA specialists, though, believe that the collision is extremely unlikely. “I don’t remember exactly, but it seems that by 2032 Apophis will ram into Earth,” Perminov said. As a matter of fact, Apophis will be flying in close vicinity to Earth in 2036. Mr. Perminov also said that his organization had already received a number of projects to break the flight path of the asteroid. The head of Roscosmos said that it could be possible to build a special purpose spaceship which would allow to avoid the collision and preserve the asteroid without any nuclear explosions. Russian specialists will choose the strategy to save planet Earth from Apophis and then invite world’s leading space agencies to join the project. Asteroid Apophis, named in honor of the Ancient Egyptian God of Chaos, was discovered in 2004. The asteroid is expected to near Earth several times from 2029 to 2036. NASA scientists initially said that the asteroid posed a serious danger to the Earth, but they later revised their predictions. Additional observations provided improved predictions that eliminated the possibility of an impact on Earth or the Moon in 2029. However, a possibility remains that during the 2029 close encounter with Earth, Apophis will pass through a gravitational keyhole, a precise region in space no more than about 600 meters across, that would set up a future impact on April 13, 2036. Additional observations of the trajectory of Apophis revealed the keyhole will likely be missed and on August 5, 2006 Apophis was lowered to a Level 0 on the Torino Scale. As of October 7, 2009, the impact probability for April 13, 2036, is calculated as 1 in 250,000. An additional impact date in 2037 was also identified; the impact probability for that encounter is calculated as 1 in 12.3 million. Anatoly Perminov also shared his thoughts about future flights to the Moon and Mars. “I am certain that man will fly to Mars, but it will happen after a manned mission to the moon. It will most likely happen in 2032,” the official said. “I know that the European Space Agency, the USA and Russia have different perspectives in their space research programs. I know that the ESA is concentrated on a mission to Mars, whereas Roscosmos and NASA are busy with lunar exploration programs,” Perminov added. Perminov also said that in 2010 Russia would be prepared to become fully accountable for the transport support of the International Space Station. “Russia is prepared to execute this goal. We have been cooperating with NASA for two years on this subject and we finally signed the agreements stipulating the delivery of astronauts to the ISS on board Russian Soyuz booster rockets,” Perminov said.

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Posted 15 March 2010 - 07:16 PM

DR Congo ring may be giant 'impact crater'

Deforestation has revealed what could be a giant impact crater in Central Africa, scientists say. The 36-46km-wide feature, identified in DR Congo, may be one of the largest such structures discovered in the last decade.

http://news.bbc.co.u...ech/8526093.stm

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Posted 15 March 2010 - 07:18 PM

Invisible star shooting comets at Earth?

In what sounds like a chilling script of a Hollywood science fiction, scientists have claimed that an invisible star, five times the size of Jupiter, might be lurking near our solar system, occasionally kicking deadly comets towards the Earth.

According to scientists, the brown dwarf star is up to five times the size of Jupiter and could be responsible for mass extinctions that occur on Earth every 26 million years.

They believe that the star nicknamed Nemesis or 'The Death Star" could be hidden beyond the edge of our solar system and only emits infrared light.


http://timesofindia....how/5678024.cms

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Posted 15 March 2010 - 07:23 PM


Dark Asteroids Found Near Earth
A new infrared telescope has found 16 previously unknown asteroids that
swing close to Earth.

Posted Image
A new infrared telescope has found 16 to 20 previously unknown asteroids that come close to Earth.

The asteroids are dark, with most reflecting less than one-tenth of the sunlight that hits them. One object is as dark as asphalt, reflecting less than 5 percent of its light

http://news.discover...ope-comets.html

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Posted 15 March 2010 - 07:25 PM

'Terminator' asteroids could re-form after nuke

THE regenerating liquid-metal robots in the Terminator movies have a cosmic relation: incoming asteroids that quickly reassemble if blasted by a nuclear bomb.

If a sizeable asteroid is found heading towards Earth, one option is to nuke it. But too small a bomb would cause the fragments to fly apart only slowly, allowing them to clump together under their mutual gravity. Simulations now show this can happen in an alarmingly short time.

Don Korycansky of the University of California, Santa Cruz, and Catherine Plesko of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico simulated blowing up asteroids 1 kilometre across. When the speed of dispersal was relatively low, it took only hours for the fragments to coalesce into a new rock.

http://www.newscient...after-nuke.html




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