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Be Afraid..be Very Afraid !


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#21 Aspras

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Posted 05 January 2008 - 09:39 AM

Well what id prefer it to do is crash on Mars so that we humans could go collect parts of it and study different stuff since its probably coming from some place far far away from here.

#22 SFX

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Posted 06 January 2008 - 02:59 AM

I doubt if there would be much left to collect, it would impact with the force of about a 10 megatons nuclear bomb
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#23 SFX

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Posted 20 January 2008 - 01:01 PM

There are alternative theories about the origins of the asteroids that are woth mentioning The formation of the asteroids and meteors often has been attributed to the break-up of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, or to the failure of the matter occupying this region to condense into a single body -Otto Struve and Velta Zebergs, Astronomy of the 20th Century. New York: Macmillan 1962 179. Theories of their origin are divided between their being (a) the debris of an ancient planetary collision, or (:)/> the material of which a planet might have been made, but was not, because of the gravitational influence of Jupiter, with the preponderance of opinion favoring the latter theory -James S. Pickering 1001 Questions Answered about Astronomy. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958, 73 Until relatively recently asteroids were merely considered to be the "dregs" of the Solar System, the debris of a former planet, but it has come to be realized that they hold important clues to the origin and evolution of the planetary system as a whole. It is thought that the asteroids were planetesimals just like any others growing elsewhere in the solar nebula.... Before they could form into planets, however, their orbits were perturbed, becoming tilted and elongated. This resulted in fragmentation and disruption rather than coalescence. They are probably still colliding today but less often. Some scientists believe that Jupiter's gravitational forces were responsible for disrupting the asteroids in the first place and preventing their accretion into a planet. -Patrick Moore and Gerry Hunt, Atlas of the Solar System. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1983, 245

#24 SFX

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Posted 20 January 2008 - 02:15 PM

Were the First Americans Wiped Out By an Asteroid?

Some 13,000 years ago, the Clovis people wandered North America, hunting ground sloths, mammoths, and other creatures—until hunters and prey both vanished. What happened? A team of scientists now think they know: A miles-wide comet, they announced in May, seems to have exploded just north of the Great Lakes, triggering a 1,000-year cold spell that helped bring on the extinction of the Clovis and the animals.

http://discovermagaz...life-in-america

#25 SFX

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Posted 20 January 2008 - 02:27 PM

Did a Tsunami Wipe Out a Cradle of Western Civilization?

The effects of the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 are only too well known: It knocked the hell out of Aceh Province on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, leveling buildings, scattering palm trees, and wiping out entire villages. It killed more than 160,000 people in Aceh alone and displaced millions more. Similar scenes of destruction were repeated along the coasts of Southeast Asia, India, and as far west as Africa. The magnitude of the disaster shocked the world.

What the world did not know was that the 2004 tsunami—seemingly so unprecedented in scale—would yield specific clues to one of the great mysteries of archaeology: What or who brought down the Minoans, the remarkable Bronze Age civilization that played a central role in the development of Western culture?

http://discovermagaz...rn-civilization

Ahh discovery magazine..always one step behind me !! See my earlier posts !!

#26 SFX

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Posted 02 February 2008 - 12:42 AM

Well update on the mars asteroid. The asteroid missed Mars by a distance of approximately 6.5 Mars radii

#27 Dark Crypto

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Posted 02 February 2008 - 04:51 AM

Dang. Hey paul whats your theory, will apophosis really be the end of human life? i personally think the americans owe everyone something, if it gets to close they'll probably just blow it up right?

#28 SFX

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Posted 02 February 2008 - 06:41 AM

It seems that it "should" miss in 2029 but may be perturbed and have a greater chance if impact in 2039 Personally i think they will be able to deflect it if needed. We have the decades of monitoring and research with this one. It is not thought to be an extinction level collider, but it would be seriopus enough to wipe out an entire city and perhaps devastate hundred of miles of surrounding land, the earthquales, shockwaves etc would also be devastatting. If it hit in the ocean the tsumani would be biblical Here is some very rough calculations i did for a ground impact Distance from Impact: 10.00 km = 6.21 miles Projectile Diameter: 243.84 m = 799.80 ft = 0.15 miles Projectile Density: 3000 kg/m3 Impact Velocity: 17.00 km/s = 10.56 miles/s Impact Angle: 45 degrees Target Density: 2500 kg/m3 Target Type: Sedimentary Rock Energy before atmospheric entry: 3.29 x 10e18 Joules = 7.86 x 10e2 MegaTons TNT The projectile begins to breakup at an altitude of 54000 meters = 177000 ft The projectile reaches the ground in a broken condition. The mass of projectile strikes the surface at velocity 15.6 km/s = 9.71 miles/s The impact energy is 2.78 x 1018 Joules = 6.65 x 10e2MegaTons. (hiroshima was a "slight" 15-kilotons) The broken projectile fragments strike the ground in an ellipse of dimension 0.869 km by 0.615 km Crater shape is normal in spite of atmospheric crushing; fragments are not significantly dispersed. Transient Crater Diameter: 3.39 km = 2.11 miles Transient Crater Depth: 1.2 km = 0.745 miles Final Crater Diameter: 4 km = 2.48 miles Final Crater Depth: 0.449 km = 0.279 miles The crater formed is a complex crater. The volume of the target melted or vaporized is 0.0175 km3 = 0.0042 miles3 Roughly half the melt remains in the crater , where its average thickness is 1.94 meters = 6.36 feet Time for maximum radiation: 0.18 seconds after impact Visible fireball radius: 2.81 km = 1.74 miles The fireball appears 63.8 times larger than the sun Thermal Exposure: 1.32 x 10e7 Joules/m2 Duration of Irradiation: 36.6 seconds Radiant flux (relative to the sun): 362 The major seismic shaking will arrive at approximately 2 seconds. Richter Scale Magnitude: 6.5 Mercalli Scale Intensity at a distance of 10 km: The ejecta will arrive approximately 45.2 seconds after the impact. Average Ejecta Thickness: 1.18 m = 3.88 ft Mean Fragment Diameter: 11 m = 36 ft The air blast will arrive at approximately 30.3 seconds. Peak Overpressure: 524000 Pa = 5.24 bars = 74.3 psi Max wind velocity: 527 m/s = 1180 mph Sound Intensity: 114 dB But this is of course a "debatable" set of calculations !! even at 10km from the imapct the maximum radiation will hit you in .18 of a second and the wind speed will be over 1000 mph The problem is we will not always be so fortunate, there are many undetected objects out there that could "sneak up on us" giving us perhaps only months (or days ?) warning

#29 SFX

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Posted 16 March 2008 - 03:49 AM

AS if forecasting whether asteroids will hit the Earth wasn't hard enough, it now seems that primordial black holes could surprise us by nudging a rock or two our way. Some physicists think these little black holes, invisible remnants of the early universe, could be a candidate for the dark matter making up much of the universe's mass. Alexander Shatskiy of the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, Russia, points out that if all dark matter, is black holes they would likely pass through the asteroid belts in our galactic backyard. Since a metre-sized primordial black hole can have the mass of the Earth, it would need only to pass near an asteroid to knock it out of a safe orbit and towards our planet, he says (www.arxiv.org/abs/0802.3119). "If anything comes through and disrupts those clouds, we could be in trouble," says Daniel Holz, an astrophysicist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. However, Holz points out that Shatskiy's estimates represent a worst-case scenario. In any case, the threat is unlikely to be immediate: Shatskiy's calculations suggest that an impact on Earth caused by black holes passing near an asteroid would only happen every 100 million years or so.

#30 SFX

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Posted 25 March 2008 - 12:44 PM

It is fairly well known, though suprizing, that the most sacred site in Islam is not the Dome of the rock in Jerusalem where Muhammed ascended to heaven, nor is it Medina - the burial place of Muhammed The most sacred place in Islam is of course Mecca, or to be more exact the cubic Kaaba which is in the center of the grand mosque at Mecca The site is said to be ancient and was venerated long before the time of Muhammed. It is said that Abraham and his son Ishmael rebuilt the Kaaba which was orginally constructed by Adam Prior to Muhammed the Kaaba was said to house many idols , some say 360, which Muhammed ordered to be destroyed But there is one object, perhaps even the "raison d'etre " for the Kaaba, that not only remained but was in fact actively venerated by Muhammed. That object is the mysterious and enigmatic Black Stone. The Stone is roughly 30 cm (12 in.) in diameter, and 1.5 meters (5 ft.) above the ground When pilgrims circle the Kaaba as part of the Tawaf ritual of the Hajj, many of them try, if possible, to stop and kiss the Black Stone, emulating the kiss that it received from Muhammad. If they cannot reach it, they are to point to it on each of their seven circuits around the Kaaba. The Stone is broken into a number of pieces from damage which was inflicted during the Middle Ages. It is now held together by a silver frame, which is fastened by silver nails to the Stone According to Islamic tradition, the Stone fell from Heaven during the time of Adam and Eve, when it was a pure and dazzling white, but has since turned black because of the sins it has absorbed over the years. It was later removed and hidden in the hill of Abu Qubays near Mecca. When Abraham rebuilt the Kaaba, the Archangel Gabriel brought the stone out of hiding and gave it to him The Prophet Muhammad is said to have played a key part in the history of the Black Stone. In 602, before the first of his prophetic revelations, he was present in Mecca during the rebuilding of the Kaaba. The Black Stone had been temporarily removed while a new structure was being constructed. A story found in Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah (as reconstructed and translated by Guillaume) shows Muhammad settling a quarrel between Meccan clans as to which clan should set the Black Stone in place. His solution was to have all the clan elders raise the cornerstone on a cloak, and then Muhammad set the stone into its final place with his own hands Grunebaum, in Classical Islam, says that the Kaaba was a place of pilgrimage even in pre-Islamic times, and was probably the only sanctuary built of stone, but that there are other sources which indicate there were other Ka'ba structures in other parts of Arabia. A "red stone" was the deity of the south Arabian city of Ghaiman, and there was a "white stone" in the Ka'ba of al-Abalat (near the city of Tabala, south of Mecca). The Black Stone has been described variously as basalt lava, an agate, a piece of natural glass or — most popularly — a stony meteorite. It is evidently a hard rock, having survived so much handling. A significant clue to its nature is provided by an account of the stone's recovery in 951 AD after it had been stolen 21 years earlier; according to a chronicler, the stone was identified by its ability to float in water. If this account is accurate, it would rule out the stone being an agate, basalt lava or stony meteorite, though it would be compatible with it being glass or pumice It has been suggested that the Black Stone may be a glass fragment from the impact of a fragmented meteorite some 6,000 years ago at Wabar, a site in the Rub' al Khali desert some 1,100 km east of Mecca. The craters at Wabar are notable for the presence of blocks of silica glass, fused by the heat of the impact and impregnated by beads of nickel-iron alloy from the meteorite (most of which was destroyed in the impact). Some of the glass blocks are made of shiny black glass with a white or yellow interior and gas-filled hollows, which allow them to float on water. Although scientists did not become aware of the Wabar craters until 1932, they were located near a caravan route from Oman and were very likely known to the inhabitants of the desert. The wider area was certainly well-known; in ancient Arabic poetry, Wabar or Ubar (also known as "Iram of the Pillars") was the site of a fabulous city that was destroyed by fire from the heavens because of the wickedness of its king. If the estimated age of the crater is accurate, it would have been well within the period of human habitation in Arabia and the impact itself may have been witnessed Note the similarity of this story with that of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, Genesis 19:23 states that "the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah sulforous fire ... out of the heaven" - a description fitting a meteor shower ?. This all links into the global collapse of the Bronze age civilisations due, in part, to impact events

#31 SFX

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Posted 25 March 2008 - 02:18 PM

From the SIS Cambridge Conference 1997:

Marie-Agnes Courty:
"Test on various late Third millennium BC archaeological deposit provides evidence for the regional occurrence in northern Syria of a layer with an uncommon petrographic assemblage, dated at ca. 2350 BC. It consists of fine sand-sized, well-sorted spherules of various composition, millimetric sized fragments of a black, vesicular, amorphous material made of silicates with Mg-Ca carbonate and phosphate inclusions, ovoid micro-aggregates made of densely packed crystals and exogenous angular fragments of a coarse crystallised igneous rock. All these particles are only present in this specific layer and are finely mixed with mud-brick debris or with a burnt surface horizon in the contemporaneous soils. In occupation sequences, the layer displays an uncommon dense packing of sand-sized, very porous aggregates that suggests disintegration of the mud-brick construction by an air blast. In the virgin soil, the burnt horizon contains black soot and graphite, and appears to have been instantaneously fossilized by a rapid and uncommon colluvial wash. Occurrence in a previously recorded thick tephra deposit of particles identical to some of the mysterious layer and resemblance of its original pseudo-sand fabric with the exploded one of the mysterious layer confirms that the later is contemporaneous with the tephra deposit. ... The restricted occurrence of the [tephra deposit] suggests that the massive tephra accumulation can no longer be considered as a typical fallout derived from the dispersion of material from a terrestrial volcanic explosion. ... Origin of this mysterious phenomena still remains unsolved."

Mike Baillie:
"In 1988 the observation was made that narrowest-ring events in Irish sub-fossil oak chronologies appeared to line up with large acidities in the Greenland ice records from Camp Century and Dye3. Three of the events, at tree-ring ages 2345 BC, 1628 BC and 1159 BC turned out to be of particular interest as they contributed to debates on the Hekla 4 eruption in Iceland, Santorini [Thera] in the Aegean, and, possibly, Hekla 3..."

I think there are good grounds to combine the 1628 BC event with Santorini/Thera, but Hekla 4 looks like a later event, ca. 2300 BC, and vice versa the 2350 BC event doesn't look like a volcanic event. Also the connection between Hekla 3 and the 1159 BC event is questionable, because of its larger context from Mycenean to Shang dynasty China.

Baillie has later come to the conclusion that only 1628 BC is volcano-based, but 2345BC and 1159BC are not.

Benny Peiser:
"...Most sites in Greece (ca.260), Anatolia (ca.350), the Levant (ca.200), Mesopotamia (ca.30), the Indian subcontinent (ca.230), China (ca.20), Persia/Afghanistan (ca.50), Iberia (ca.70) which collapsed at around 2200+-200 BC, exhibit unambiguous signs of natural calamities and/or rapid abandonment. The proxy data detected in the marine, terrestrial, biological and archaeological records point to sudden ecological, climatic and social upheavals which appear to coincide with simultaneous sea- and lake-level changes, increased levels of seismic activity and widespread flood/tsunami disasters. The main problem in interconnecting this vast amount of data chronologically is the application of incoherent and imprecise dating methods in different areas of geological and climatological research..."




Sodom and Gomorrah
There have been excavations on the Lisan peninsula, which nearly cuts the southern part of the Dead Sea off from the rest of it. It is also different from the main Dead Sea in that it's mean depth is very different from the rest of the Dead Sea, only 10 m in average. It seems that there was a great catastrophe around 2200 BC that has destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah. The surface of the Dead Sea dropped suddenly by 100m around 2200 BC (Frumkin et al., The Holocene 1.3, 1991). If we take the story in Genesis for what it seems to indicate, the whole southern part of the Dead Sea may be an impact crater that was caused by a cosmic disaster, one piece in the 2200 BC disaster.

#32 SFX

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Posted 25 March 2008 - 02:38 PM

From Robert G. Bauval - Discussions in Egyptology

There was a widespread belief among ancient Mediterranean people -including the Egyptians- that iron actually came from heaven; clearly here an allusion to its meteoritic origin.

Today, the average number of meteorite finds is only 5 meteorites per year. Such scarcity is in spite of our sophisticated communication systems and greater scientific interest. A low number such as this could hardly have caused the widespread belief in antiquity that iron came from the sky, and many scientists are of the opinion, therefore, that meteorite falls occurred more frequently in the past - an hypothesis apparently supported by astrophysics research. The probability, therefore, of observing the fall of a large iron-meteorite and also recovering it was higher in our remote past than it is today. Indeed many sacred stones which were believed to have fallen from heaven, and accordingly worshipped in temples or shrines, were surely meteorites.

The Ephesians (Acts xix-35), for example, are said to have worshipped in the temple of Diana that symbol of her which fell from heaven. In the temple of Apollo in Delphi a stone (Roux, p.130), probably shaped like an ovoid/cone (later to be replaced by the well-known Omphalos) was believed to have come from Cronnos the sky-god, and was the object of much veneration. This stone of Cronnos was most likely a meteorite (Wainwright, Annal, Serv.xxviii, p.185). A conical iron-meteorite is said to have also been worshiped by the Phrygian in the 7th century BC (McCall, p.17). The conical black stone known as Elagalabus was worshipped in Emessa and was a meteorite (Daremberg & Sangrio, p.529). Not far from Emessa, in the temple of Heliopolis-Baalbek, were venerated black, conical stones (Hitti, p.312). The Nabataean god, Dushara, was worshipped in the form of an obelisk or an unhewn four cornered blackstone (ibid. p.385). Indeed, a modern example of such stone-worship is the much venerated blackstone kept in the Kaaba shrine in Mecca, Western Saudi Arabia, which is thought by geologists to be a meteorite recovered in antiquity

British Egyptologist G.A. Wainwright has convincingly argued that iron in the Old Kingdom Period was mostly obtained from iron-meteorites (Wainwright, JEA 18, p.3). It seems that man-made iron from terrestrial ores rarely contains nickel, whereas meteoritic iron contains a high proportion of this element, on average 12 percent. Wainwright states that ornamental beads made of iron dating as far back as Pre-Dynastic times have been analysed and shown to contain high levels of nickel, confirming their meteoritic origin (for a counter view see Dunham, JEA 28,p.57). Significantly the word Bja meaning iron in ancient Egyptian also meant the material of which heaven was made. It is therefore highly likely that meteoritic-iron was also imagined the stuff from which were made the reborn kings as star-gods (Wainwright, JEA 18, p.11). Certain passages in the Pyramid Texts are indeed very suggestive of such a concept: “The king’s bones are iron and the king’s members are the imperishable stars…” (pyr.2051). “I [the king] am pure, I take to myself my iron bones…my imperishable limbs are in the womb of Nut” (pyr.530) “my bones are iron and my limbs are the imperishable stars” (pyr.1454).

It is also likely that chunks of iron-meteorite -which generally have a lustred, black appearance-were associated or even confused with black hard stones such as diorite, basalt and dark-grey granite found in Upper Egypt. To a primitive mind unfamiliar with iron and its chemical properties, the resemblance can be uncanny. Not surprisingly, black basalt was called ‘Bja-Kam’ meaning ‘black iron’ (Wallis Budge, p.210), suggesting that basalt, and possibly similar black hard stones viz. diorite and dark granite, were associated to meteoritic ironstone, and consequently to the ‘bones’ of star-gods. Most capstones of monumental pyramids were probably made of granite (Edwards, pp.118,151). The almost-black granite capstone of the pyramid of Amenemhet III in the Cairo museum is a fine example of this. It was discovered in 1902 by Maspero, who remarked that its surface had been ‘mirror’ polished (“poli a miroir…” -Maspero, Annal.Serv. iii, p.206). Such a description is typical for the appearance of a freshly fallen iron-meteorite. Amenemhet III’s capstone could well be the stylised man-made version of an oriented iron-meteorite symbolising his materialized star-soul. The two lines of carved hieroglyphic inscriptions ornating the base of the capstone were first discussed by Maspero (Maspero, Annal.Serv. iii, p.206), and later by Breasted (Breasted, p.73) and Piankoff (Piankoff, p.5). In the inscriptions several deities are evoked, among them supposedly the sun-god (as ‘The Lord Of The Horizon’) and Orion-Osiris, the great star-god of astral rebirth, depicted as a striding man holding a staff in one hand, and cupping a large star in the other. On one side of the capstone are carved two large eyes surmounted by a disc with feathered-wings; the inscription below states that “the face of Amenemhet is open, he sees the Lord Of The Horizon as he sails in the sky” (incidentally, this curious winged-face/head is also depicted in the Pyramid Texts in conjunction with ‘iron’: “He has appeared upon the Stone (?), upon his throne, he has sharpened the iron by means of it…raise yourself, O king, gather your bones, take your head…O king, raise yourself as Min [the Phallic/fertility God], fly up to the sky and live with them, cause your wings to grow with your feathers on your head…” (pyr.1945-8). Another inscription on the Amenemhet III capstone states: “…the soul of King Amenemhet is higher than the heights of Orion…” Breasted’s view that the inscriptions proves the solar symbolism of the capstone is surely incorrect, for it is fairly evident from such inscriptions that we are to consider the capstone not as the material representation of the sun-god but rather that of the king’s star-soul, a progeny of Ra, not Ra himself. It is in this capacity that the soul of the king, now established as a star-object high above the base of the pyramid, does indeed participate in the eternal cycles of the sun-god and the ancestral star-gods as they sail across the sky each day.

The hieroglyphic sign for the word ‘pyramid’ was sometimes depicted as a pyramid with a yellow apex, suggesting that the granite capstones of pyramids may have been gilded (Edwards, p.276). An inscription found by Jequier at the pyramid of a queen called Udjebten supports this hypothesis, for it speaks of the gilded capstone of her pyramid (ibid.). A quasi-black granite capstone, the stylised representation of an oriented iron-meteorite, finely polished and covered with a gold skin would certainly bear potent symbolism associated to a primitive concept of a ‘living star’ i.e. a star-soul shining in the sky, the bones of which were imagined to be made of iron or bja-kam, and the ‘flesh’ of gold. Evidence of this idea may be in these passages: “O King, raise yourself upon your iron bones and golden members, for this body of yours belongs to a god… may your flesh be born to life and may your life be more than the life of the stars in their season of life…” (pyr. 2244). “I [the king] row Ra when traversing the sky, even I a star of gold…” (pyr. 886-9); and (pyr. 904) instructs the dead king to “be a soul like a living star”.



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Posted 25 March 2008 - 02:49 PM

Estimated at over 60 tons, the Hoba meteorite (also known as Hoba West meteorite) is the largest known meteorite and the most massive naturally-occurring piece of iron known at the Earth's surface. It was named after the place where it was found, the Hoba West Farm, near Grootfontein, Namibia. It has been uncovered but, because of its large mass, has never been moved from where it fell. The Hoba meteorite is thought to have landed over 80,000 years ago. It is inferred that the Earth's atmosphere slowed the object down to the point that it fell to the surface at terminal velocity, thereby remaining intact and causing little excavation. The meteorite is unusual in that it is flat on both major surfaces, possibly causing it to have skipped across the top of the atmosphere in the way a flat stone skips on water. Attached File  hoba_meteroite.jpg   100.33KB   9 downloads

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Posted 17 April 2008 - 06:10 PM

Was the Exodus "Helped" By an Impact ?

In earlier post i have mentioned the growing evidence that large scale impacts were responsible for the collapse of the early and late bronzre age civilizations worldwide in about 2300 BC and again at about 1200 BC

There is strong evidence for a major impact occuring around 1100 - 1200 BC and with this in mind it is interesting to look at the events surrounding the exodus and the possible dating of the event, which i give below at about 1400 BC (though there is also strong evidence for a date of around 1200 BC). Was this a period of intense imapct activity ?

"In the first place, that we came out of another country into Egypt; and that withal our deliverance out of it was so ancient in time as to have preceded the siege of Troy almost a thousand years"
Josephus Flavius, Against Apion Book 1:16


The generally accepted date for the siege of Troy is circa 1280 B.C.E.. If the Exodus took place a thousand years earlier, the flight of the Israelites would have occurred when the Canaanite empire was in decline, just prior to the disintegration of the Old Kingdom of Egypt through invasion by Libyans and Bedouins from the east
.

"And if Ctesias says that the Assyrian power is many years older than the Greek, the exodus of Moses from Egypt will appear to have taken place in the forty-second year of the Assyrian empire, in the thirty-second year of the reign of Belochus, in the time of Amosis the Egyptian, and of Inachus the Argive."
- - Clement of Alexandria, Stomta


The Old Assyrian empire can be dated from 2000-1450 B.C.E. which would place the Exodus near the beginning of the second millenium B.C.E.


"And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord."
- I Kings 6:1


"Thiele's chronology of the Israelite kings [The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (1983)...places Solomon's coronation in circa 931 BC. Thus the temple was founded in 928 and Moses brought the Israelites out of Egypt four hundred and eighty years earlier in circa 1447 BC. This date for Exodus is supported by Judges 11:26 where it states that around three hundred years had elapsed from the Conquest of the Promised Land to the judgeship of Jephthah (c. 1110 BC."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995), p. 249


"Artapanus writes that a pharaoh named Palmanothes was persecuting the Israelites. His daughter Merris adopted a Hebrew child who grew up to be called prince Mousos. Merris married a pharaoh Khenephrês. Prince Mousos grew up to administer the land on behalf of this pharaoh. He led a military campaign against the Ethiopians who were invading Egypt; however, upon his return, Khenephrês grew jealous of his popularity. Mousos then fled to Arabia to return when Khenephrês died and lead the Israelites to freedom."

"...Artapanus' Greek name 'Khenephrês' represents the Egyptian royal name 'Khaneferre' meaning 'the perfection of Re shines in the horizon'."
"...Only one pharaoh in the whole of Egyptian history is known to have taken this name. Following the death of Neferhotep I and his short reigned son, Sihathor, a younger brother of the former took the throne as the twenty-third ruler of the 13th Dynasty. At birth he was given the name Sobekhotep ('Sobek is content') but he took at his coronation the prenomen 'Khaneferre'. The great American Egyptologist, James Henry Breasted, assessing the political situation during the SIP [Second Intermediary Period], was of the opinion that this Sobekhotep was the greatest king of the era. So the birth of Moses coincided with the coming to the throne of a new, powerful pharaoh named Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV and it was in his reign that Moses was raised as a prince of Egypt."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995), p. 255


"Josephus in his Antiquities of the Jews, with access to very old manuscripts and writing in AD 93, also mentioned Moses' Ethiopian or Kushite war. Here, Moses led an Egyptian army down the Nile valley, past the Third Cataract, deep into Kush (modern Ethiopia). In the British Museum is a stela which tells of a 13th Dynasty pharaoh undertaking a campaign south into the region of Kush. That pharaoh is none other than Khaneferre, the step-father of Moses according to Artapanus. He is the only 13th Dynasty pharaoh who is recorded as having campaigned into Upper Nubia or Ethiopia"


"Excavations have been continuing for over 30 years near the Egyptian village of Tell ed-Daba. Here in the Nile Delta region, a large Middle Bronze Age settlement has been uncovered. This is the region of Goshen and the excavation is at the location of the biblical city of Raamses or Pi-Ramesse, the city of Ramesses II (Exodus 1:11). Settlement here spans a period from the 12th to the 20th Dynasties of Egypt. The ancient city at its peak covered an area of ten square kilometres, making it one of the largest cities of the ancient world. It existed for 800 years before being abandoned, when its stones was used to build Tanis."


"No Israelite settlement has ever been found in the 19th Dynasty occupational levels where the orthodox chronology predicted is stratigraphical locus. Within the stata of New Kingdom Pi-Ramesse (biblical Raamses) so far no evidence has been unearthed to support the conventional hypothesis that a large Asiatic population resided there."

"The only period in Egyptian history with incontrovertible archaeological evidence for a large Asiatic population in the eastern delta (i.e. Goshen/Kessan) is the Second Intermediate Period..."
"The Israelite Sojourn in Egypt began in the late 12th Dynasty and continued throughout most of the 13th Dynasty. It is represented in Egypt's archaeological record by the Asiatic culture known as Middle Bronze IIA. The main settlement of the Israelites in Egypt was located at the city of Avaris in the region of Goshen. Their archaeological remains are represented by the dwellings and tombs of Tell ed-Daba stata H to G/1."

"...An analysis of the graves at Tell ed-Daba has shown that there were more females than males in the burial population of Avaris."

In addition, "sixty-five per cent of all the burials were those of children under the age of eighteen months. Based on modern statistical evidence obtained from pre-modern societies we would expect the infant mortality rate to be around twenty to thirty percent."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995)


"But the Israelites were fruitful and multiplied greatly and became exceedingly numerous, so that the land was filled with them."
- Exodus 1:8-14


"Before Moses, the Bible records that the Israelites were enslaved by their Egyptian hosts (Exodus 1:8-14). In the Brooklyn Museum resides a papyrus scroll numbered Brooklyn 35:1446 which was acquired in the late 19th century by Charles Wilbour. This dates to the reign of Sobekhotep III, the predecessor of Neferhotep I and so the pharaoh who reigned one generation before Moses. This papyrus is a decree by the pharaoh for a transfer of slaves. Of the 95 names of slaves mentioned in the letter, 50% are Semitic in origin. What is more, it lists the names of these slaves in the original Semitic language and then adds the Egyptian name that each had been assigned, which is something the Bible records the Egyptians as doing, cf. Joseph's name given to him by pharaoh (Genesis 41:45).


"The reduction in the male Asiatic population is not due to a series of (unattested) wars in the north but rather as a result of a deliberate policy on the part of the Egyptian state to reduce the perceived Israelite threat by means of male infanticide."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995), p. 278


"The king of Egypt said to the Hebrew midwives, whose names were Shiphrah and Puah,'When you help the Hebrew women in childbirth and observe them on the delivery stool, if it is a boy, kill him; but if it is a girl, let her live.'
Then Pharaoh gave this order to all his people: 'Every boy that is born [Masoretic Text; Samaritan Pentateuch, Septuagint and Targums 'born to the Hebrews'] you must throw into the Nile, but let every girl live.'"
- Exodus 1:15-16, 22


"At the end of stratum G/1 at Tell ed-Daba, which is roughly dated to the middle of the 13th Dynasty, Bietak and his archaeological team began to uncover a gruesome scene. All over the city of Avaris they found shallow burial pits into which the victims of some terrible disaster had been hurriedly cast. There were no careful interments of the deceased. The bodies were not arranged in the proper burial fashion but rather thrown into the mass graves, one on top of the other. There were no grave goods placed with the corpses as was usually the custom."

"...Analysis of the site archaeology suggests that a large part of the remaining population of the town abandoned their homes and departed from Avaris en masse. The site was then reoccupied after an interval of unknown duration by Asiatics who were not 'Egyptianised' like the previous population of stratum G."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995), p. 279


Rohl asserts that these next Asiatic occupants were the Hyksos, who invaded Egypt at the end of the Middle Kingdom and ruled the country for more than two centuries.


"Old Midrash sources narrate that the walls of Pithom and Raamses fell and were partly swallowed by the earth, and that many Israelites perished on that occasion."
- velikov.htmlImmanuel Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos


"Tutimaos [the pharaoh Dudimose, one of the later rulers of the 13th Dynasty]. In his reign, for what cause I know not, a blast of God smote us; and unexpectedly, from the regions of the East, invaders of obscure race marched in confidence of victory against our land. By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow; and having overpowered the rulers of the land, they then burned our cities ruthless, razed to the ground the temples of the gods, and treated all the natives with a cruel hostility, massacring some and leading into slavery the wives and children of others. Finally, they appointed as king one of their number who name was Salitis..."
- Josephus, quoting Manetho in Against Apion, Book 1:14


Using the Royal Canon of Turin and dating backwards from Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV (circa 1529-1510 in Rohl's new chronology) through twelve kings in the 13th Dynasty to Dudimose "gives an approximate date range for the accession of Dudimose of 1457 to 1444 BC. The biblical date for the Exodus is 1447 BC and so Dudimose was in all likelihood the Pharaoh of the Exodus."
"...Biblical tradition gives a birth-date for Moses of 1527 BC. He would then have been between seventy-two and eighty-five years old at the accession of Dudimose....The Old Testament informs us that Moses was eighty years old at the time of Exodus..."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995), p. 282


"But as the king still persisted in his folly, Moses caused hail and earthquakes by night, so that those who fled from the earthquakes were killed by the hail, and those who sought shelter form the hail were destroyed by the earthquakes. And at that time all the houses fell in and most of the temples."
- Artapanus, Peri Ioudaion

"Forsooth, the land turns round as does a potter's wheel. The towns are destroyed. Upper Egypt has become dry (wastes?).
"All is ruin."
"The residence is overturned in a minute."
"Oh, that the earth would cease from noise, and tumult (uproar) be no more."
- Papyrus of Ipuwer 2:8, 2:11, 3:13, 7:4


"In Hebrew the word raash signifies 'noise', 'commotions', as well as 'earthquake'. Earthquakes are often accompanied by loud sounds, subterranean rumbling and roaring, and this acoustic phenomenon gives the name to the upheaval itself."
- Immanuel Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos


"And it came to pass, that at midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon."
- Exodus 12:29


"The Hebrew word for 'first born' is bekore whilst the Hebrew for 'chosen' is bakhur (with the meaning of 'choice youth'). Both words appear to stem from bakhar meaning 'prime root'. There is a clear connection in the Bible between these two words. When God refers to 'Israel, my chosen' the phrase in Hebrew is either Israel bechiri or Israel bechori; when God refers to 'Israel, my first-born' the Hebrew is Israel bekhori. We may therefore understand the passage concerning the death of the Egyptian first-born as a literary device which should better be understood as 'the chosen of Egypt' or, in modern parlance, 'the flower of Egypt'. Egypt's future was cut short by Yahweh's punishment, perhaps personified in the death of the crown prince, the first-born son of Pharaoh Dudimose."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995), p. 284


"According to the Haggadic tradition, not only the firstborn but the majority of the population in Egypt was killed during the tenth plague."
- Immanuel Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos

"...There was not a house where there was not one dead."
- Exodus 12:30



Could it be that a major impact occured at this time, creating eathquakes devastastion and the all to commonly associated aftermath of disease thus "openning the gates" for the Exodus to occur ?

By the way Professor Kitchen dates the Exodus to around 1200 BC more in line with an impact event

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Posted 19 April 2008 - 09:42 PM

It is worth mentioning a theory that dawned on me when i was a teenager ( i subsequently found out that Sigmund Freud may have thought of it first !!)

You see there is a lot, and i mean a lot, of debate over the chronology of the egyptians, there are no definitive dates given to the accesion and deaths of the pharaohs and it is now believed that the were many co-regencies

So dating the Exodus ( if it actually occured) is always going to be tricky. However I have always been struck by the similarity with the ideals of the Pharaoh Akhenaten and Moses,

As a child i always thought there was something more to the story of Moses than i was given. His name alone fascinated me when i read of the many similar named pharaoh's such as Thutmose, Ahmoses, Kamose etc

And even as a kid i never felt quite comfortable with the idea of a foundling being raised to such a high level in the egyptian hierachy.

So let me briefly give this theory. Moses was not a Jew found and brought up by pharohs' daughter

This is the original "legend" of Sargon of Assyria :

"Sargon, strong king, king of Agade, am I. My mother was a high priestess, my father I do not know. My paternal kin inhabit the mountain region. My city (of birth) is Azupiranu, which lies on the bank of the Euphrates. My mother, a high priestess, conceived me, in secret she bore me. She placed me in a reed basket, with bitumen she caulked my hatch. She abandoned me to the river from which I could not escape. The river carried me along: to Aqqi, the water drawer, it brought me. Aqqi, the water drawer, when immersing his bucket lifted me up. Aqqi, the water drawer, raised me as his adopted son. Aqqi, the water drawer, set me to his garden work. During my garden work, Istar loved me (so that) 55 years I ruled as king"

My belief is that Moses was a high priest ( his training in ALL things egyptian is never questioned in any sources), more importantly a high priest of the Akhenaten sect. ( Or some have argued Akhenaten himself !!)

Akhenaten was born as Amenhotep IV, he was probably the father of Tutankhaten later to be known as Tutankhamun. He created a new "capital" and center of worship at Akhetaten at a site today known as Armana

Akhenaten also oversaw the construction of some of the most massive temple complexes in ancient Egypt, including one at Karnak, close to the old temple of Amun. In these new temples, Aten was worshipped in the open sunlight, rather than in dark temple enclosures, as had been the previous custom



The name changes are critical to the story. Amenhotep IV developed a new monotheistic religion ( one god) worshiping the Aten as opposed to the older Amun-Ra

"Initially, Akhenaten presented Aten as a variant of the familiar supreme deity Amun-Ra (itself the result of an earlier rise to prominence of the cult of Amun, resulting in Amun becoming merged with the sun god Ra), in an attempt to put his ideas in a familiar Egyptian religious context. However, by Year 9 of his reign Akhenaten declared that Aten was not merely the supreme god, but the only god, and that he, Akhenaten, was the only intermediary between Aten and his people. He ordered the defacing of Amun's temples throughout Egypt, and in a number of instances inscriptions of the plural 'gods' were also removed."

Note the first commandments given by the god of the israelites to Moses:

"I am the LORD your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slavery. You shall have no other gods before Me..."

"Do not make an image or any likeness of what is in the heavens above..."


Armana is of special interest to historians because it was there that a great horde of official "letters" were found

"Important evidence about Akhenaten's reign and foreign policy has been provided by the discovery of the Amarna Letters, a cache of diplomatic correspondence discovered in modern times at el-Amarna, the modern designation of the Akhetaten site. This correspondence comprises a priceless collection of incoming messages on clay tablets, sent to Akhetaten from various subject rulers through Egyptian military outposts, and from the foreign rulers (recognized as "Great Kings") of Mitanni, Babylon, Assyria and Hatti. The governors and kings of Egypt's subject domains also wrote frequently to plead for gold from Pharaoh, and also complained of being snubbed and cheated by him."



In support of the (rather shaky) theory that Akhenaten was Moses we have evidence of widespread plauge and disease occuring at Armana, note the plauges whic precceded the exodus.

"This Amarna period is also associated with a serious outbreak of a pandemic, possibly the plague, or polio, or perhaps the world's first recorded outbreak of influenza, which came from Egypt and spread throughout the Middle East, killing Suppiluliuma I, the Hittite King. Influenza is a disease associated with the close proximity of water fowl, pigs and humans, and its origin as a pandemic disease may be due to the development of agricultural systems that allow the mixing of these animals and their wastes. Some of the first archaeological evidence for this agricultural system is during the Amarna period of Ancient Egypt, and the pandemic that followed this period throughout the Ancient Near East may have been the earliest recorded outbreak of influenza. However, the precise nature of this Egyptian plague remains unknown and Asia has also been suggested as a possible site of origin of pandemic influenza in humans.The prevalence of disease may help explain the rapidity with which the site of Akhetaten was subsequently abandoned. It may also explain why later generations considered the gods to have turned against the Amarna monarchs. The black plague has also been suggested by Zahi Hawass due to the fact that at Amarna the traces of the plague have been found"

With Akhenaten's death, the Aten cult he had founded gradually fell out of favor. Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun in Year 2 of his reign (1332 BC) and abandoned the city of Akhetaten, which eventually fell into ruin. His successors Ay and Horemheb disassembled temples Akhenaten had built, including the temple at Thebes, using them as a source of easily available building materials and decorations for their own temples.

Finally, Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun (was he murdered ?), and Ay were excised from the official lists of Pharaohs, which instead reported that Amenhotep III was immediately succeeded by Horemheb. This is thought to be part of an attempt by Horemheb to delete all trace of Atenism and the pharaohs associated with it from the historical record. Akhenaten's name never appeared on any of the king lists compiled by later Pharaohs and it was not until the late 19th century that his identity was re-discovered and the surviving traces of his reign were unearthed by archaeologists.


I like to think that since it is hard to match the dates of the exodus with him it is more likely that Moses was a follower, initate, high priest of the Akhenhaten "heresey"

And of course to bring us back to impactors !! it is interesting to note that this peiod, when dating is especially difficult, is known as a chronological "Dark Age"

"Beginning with the Akkadian Empire around 2300 BC, the chronological evidence firms up, with various overlapping and interacting dynasties reasonably well attested to in the archaeological record. Essentially, for this period, a good picture can be drawn of who ruled after who, more or less how long they ruled, and how dynasties interacted with each other in battle, trade, and diplomacy. This relatively coherent chronology comes to a halt with the end of the Babylonian Dynasty III (Kassite) around 1200 BC.

The Dark Age - sometime around the fall of Babylonian Dynasty III (Kassite) around 1200 BC things in the ancient Near East take a serious turn for the worse. In the east, the Mari and Mitanni are overrun, apparently by the Sea People who similarly trouble Egypt. In the north, the Hittite Empire is overrun by parties as yet unidentified. In the south, Arameans migrate in and crush both the Assyrians and the Babylonians. Meanwhile a major drought is punishing the entire region, extending as far away as Mycenae and Libya. Essentially, almost anyone capable of putting stylus to a cuneiform tablet is too busy running for their lives to record history. Note that due to the thin nature of early Kassite, Assyrian and Hittite records, the Dark Age is considered by some scholars to run all the way back to the fall of Babylon in 1531 BC."


I am almost convinced that massive widespread impacts occured at this time and they were the cause of these dark age events

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Posted 19 May 2008 - 06:58 PM

As i have mentioned in earlier posts something dramatic occured on earth around 2300 BC, give or take a century

At some time around 2300 BC, give or take a century or two, a large number of the major civilisations of the world collapsed, simultaneously it seems. The Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, the Old Kingdom in Egypt, the Early Bronze Age civilisation in Israel, Anatolia and Greece, as well as the Indus Valley civilisation in India, the Hilmand civilisation in Afghanistan and the Hongshan Culture in China - the first urban civilisations in the world - all fell into ruin at more or less the same time


I was doing some reasearch on comets and came across some interesting ideas put forward by Tom Slattery, in spring 1997 we were lucky enough to see the comet hale-Bopp in the night skies, as you can imagine i went all "starry eyed" and my cats kept well away from for fear of being sacrificed.

Now here is an odd thing about Hale-Bopp, it was a newly discovered comet and it was calculated that it's last appearance should have been in 2213 BC. Now knowing the importance our ancestors placed on celestial events it would seem probable that this appearance would have made quite an "impact" on them, however as the researchers busied themselves looking for ancient references to this event they came across nothing, Nada, Zilch. Searching all the recorded history of the worlds great civilizations of the era they could not find a single reference to the comet, why is this ?


Well if we assume that the comet's trajectory calaculations are accurate, that is it did not aquire it's solar orbit recently due to some unforseen events then we have to assume that the comet did pass whitin visible distance of the earth at around about the same time that the worlds major early bronze age civilisations collapsed

Was the comet involved in the collpase ? Did a fragment impact the earth casing so much disruption that the events only survive in myths and legends such as those i have mentioned earlier ? was it responsible for the sudden climatic changes that occured at this time ? ( and come to think of it could comets still have an imapct on our climate ?)

It seems that the comet should have arrived around the reign of the pharaoh Pepi II and what followed his reign was an era of chaos, famine and uncertainty known as the first intermediate period when the two kingdoms fell apart

Is it possible that such chaotic times hampered official documentation of the event such that it only survived as a word of mouth story ?

At about the same time the Akkadian civilisation in Mesopotamia collapsed and there are records of sudden unfavourable climatic changes occuring at this time

"At 2200 B.C., a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation, subsequent to a volcanic eruption, induced a considerable degradation of land-use conditions. After four centuries of urban life, this abrupt climate change evidently caused the abandonment of Tel Leilan."


This may all be conjecture but add it to the other evidence i have given you and..well it does seem very likely that "something" extraordinary occured around this period in our history..could it happen again ? - of course !! When ?...????

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Posted 01 June 2008 - 06:20 PM

Asteroid deflection is one of those topics that draws an eclectic mix of serious NASA engineers, professors, and crazy people.

To help sort through decades of scientific research and a century of science fiction, Iowa State university professor Bong Wie is establishing the first-ever Asteroid Deflection Research Center.

The Center will look at all available technologies that could be deployed to some day keep a space rock from slamming into the Earth and ending civilization.

http://blog.wired.co...state-esta.html

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Posted 06 June 2008 - 02:30 AM

Tutankhamun's fireball In 1996 in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Italian mineralogist Vincenzo de Michele spotted an unusual yellow-green gem in the middle of one of Tutankhamun's necklaces. The jewel was tested and found to be glass, but intriguingly it is older than the earliest Egyptian civilisation Attached File  scarab.jpg   26.64KB   3 downloads Working with Egyptian geologist Aly Barakat, they traced its origins to unexplained chunks of glass found scattered in the sand in a remote region of the Sahara Desert. But the glass is itself a scientific enigma. How did it get to be there and who or what made it? An Austrian astrochemist Christian Koeberl had established that the glass had been formed at a temperature so hot that there could be only one known cause: a meteorite impacting with Earth. And yet there were no signs of a suitable impact crater, even in satellite images. American geophysicist John Wasson is another scientist interested in the origins of the glass. He suggested a solution that came directly from the forests of Siberia. "When the thought came to me that it required a hot sky, I thought immediately of the Tunguska event," In 1908, a massive explosion flattened 80 million trees in Tunguska, Siberia. Although there was no sign of a meteorite impact, scientists now think an extraterrestrial object of some kind must have exploded above Tunguska. Wasson wondered if a similar aerial burst could have produced enough heat to turn the ground to glass in the Egyptian desert. The first atomic bomb detonation, at the Trinity site in New Mexico in 1945, created a thin layer of glass on the sand. But the area of glass in the Egyptian desert is vastly bigger. Whatever happened in Egypt must have been much more powerful than an atomic bomb. A natural airburst of that magnitude was unheard of until, in 1994, scientists watched as comet Shoemaker-Levy collided with Jupiter. It exploded in the Jovian atmosphere, and the Hubble telescope recorded the largest incandescent fireball ever witnessed rising over Jupiter's horizon. Mark Boslough, who specialises in modelling large impacts on supercomputers, created a simulation of a similar impact on Earth. The simulation revealed that an impactor could indeed generate a blistering atmospheric fireball, creating surface temperatures of 1,800C, and leaving behind a field of glass. "What I want to emphasise is that it is hugely bigger in energy than the atomic tests," said Boslough. "Ten thousand times more powerful." The more fragile the incoming object, the more likely these airborne explosions are to happen. In Southeast Asia, John Wasson has unearthed the remains of an event 800,000 years ago that was even more powerful and damaging than the one in the Egyptian desert; one which produced multiple fireballs and left glass over three hundred thousand square miles, with no sign of a crater. "Within this region, certainly all of the humans would have been killed. There would be no hope for anything to survive," he said. According to Boslough and Wasson, events similar to Tunguska could happen as frequently as every 100 years, and the effect of even a small airburst would be comparable to many Hiroshima bombs. Attempting to blow up an incoming asteroid, Hollywood style, could well make things worse by increasing the number of devastating airbursts. "There are hundreds of times more of these smaller asteroids than there are the big ones the astronomers track," said Mark Boslough. "There will be another impact on the earth. It's just a matter of when."

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Posted 29 November 2008 - 04:06 AM

Meteorite search update: 10-ton rock responsible for fireball in Western Canada last week (20 Nov 2008)

Investigation of the fireball that lit up the skies of Alberta and Saskatchewan on November 20 has determined that an asteroid fragment weighing approximately 10 tonnes entered the Earth's atmosphere over the prairie provinces last Thursday evening. And University of Calgary researcher Alan Hildebrand has outlined a region in western Saskatchewan where chunks of the desk-sized space rock are expected to be found

http://www.physorg.c...s146839756.html

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Posted 11 January 2009 - 06:51 AM

MULTIPLE comet impacts around 1500 years ago triggered a "dry fog" that plunged half the world into famine.



Historical records tell us that from the beginning of March 536 AD, a fog of dust blanketed the atmosphere for 18 months. During this time, "the sun gave no more light than the moon", global temperatures plummeted and crops failed, says Dallas Abbot of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in New York. The cause has long been unknown, but theories have included a vast volcanic eruption or an impact from space.

Now Abbott and her team have found the first direct evidence that multiple impacts caused the haze.


http://www.newscient...ref=online-news




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