Be Afraid..be Very Afraid !
Posted 05 January 2008 - 09:39 AM
Posted 06 January 2008 - 02:59 AM
- Alealokato, zoofteroppy and Tranisgalt like this
Posted 20 January 2008 - 01:01 PM
Posted 20 January 2008 - 02:15 PM
Some 13,000 years ago, the Clovis people wandered North America, hunting ground sloths, mammoths, and other creaturesâuntil hunters and prey both vanished. What happened? A team of scientists now think they know: A miles-wide comet, they announced in May, seems to have exploded just north of the Great Lakes, triggering a 1,000-year cold spell that helped bring on the extinction of the Clovis and the animals.
Posted 20 January 2008 - 02:27 PM
The effects of the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 are only too well known: It knocked the hell out of Aceh Province on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, leveling buildings, scattering palm trees, and wiping out entire villages. It killed more than 160,000 people in Aceh alone and displaced millions more. Similar scenes of destruction were repeated along the coasts of Southeast Asia, India, and as far west as Africa. The magnitude of the disaster shocked the world.
What the world did not know was that the 2004 tsunamiâseemingly so unprecedented in scaleâwould yield specific clues to one of the great mysteries of archaeology: What or who brought down the Minoans, the remarkable Bronze Age civilization that played a central role in the development of Western culture?
Ahh discovery magazine..always one step behind me !! See my earlier posts !!
Posted 02 February 2008 - 12:42 AM
Posted 02 February 2008 - 04:51 AM
Posted 02 February 2008 - 06:41 AM
Posted 16 March 2008 - 03:49 AM
Posted 25 March 2008 - 12:44 PM
Posted 25 March 2008 - 02:18 PM
"Test on various late Third millennium BC archaeological deposit provides evidence for the regional occurrence in northern Syria of a layer with an uncommon petrographic assemblage, dated at ca. 2350 BC. It consists of fine sand-sized, well-sorted spherules of various composition, millimetric sized fragments of a black, vesicular, amorphous material made of silicates with Mg-Ca carbonate and phosphate inclusions, ovoid micro-aggregates made of densely packed crystals and exogenous angular fragments of a coarse crystallised igneous rock. All these particles are only present in this specific layer and are finely mixed with mud-brick debris or with a burnt surface horizon in the contemporaneous soils. In occupation sequences, the layer displays an uncommon dense packing of sand-sized, very porous aggregates that suggests disintegration of the mud-brick construction by an air blast. In the virgin soil, the burnt horizon contains black soot and graphite, and appears to have been instantaneously fossilized by a rapid and uncommon colluvial wash. Occurrence in a previously recorded thick tephra deposit of particles identical to some of the mysterious layer and resemblance of its original pseudo-sand fabric with the exploded one of the mysterious layer confirms that the later is contemporaneous with the tephra deposit. ... The restricted occurrence of the [tephra deposit] suggests that the massive tephra accumulation can no longer be considered as a typical fallout derived from the dispersion of material from a terrestrial volcanic explosion. ... Origin of this mysterious phenomena still remains unsolved."
"In 1988 the observation was made that narrowest-ring events in Irish sub-fossil oak chronologies appeared to line up with large acidities in the Greenland ice records from Camp Century and Dye3. Three of the events, at tree-ring ages 2345 BC, 1628 BC and 1159 BC turned out to be of particular interest as they contributed to debates on the Hekla 4 eruption in Iceland, Santorini [Thera] in the Aegean, and, possibly, Hekla 3..."
I think there are good grounds to combine the 1628 BC event with Santorini/Thera, but Hekla 4 looks like a later event, ca. 2300 BC, and vice versa the 2350 BC event doesn't look like a volcanic event. Also the connection between Hekla 3 and the 1159 BC event is questionable, because of its larger context from Mycenean to Shang dynasty China.
Baillie has later come to the conclusion that only 1628 BC is volcano-based, but 2345BC and 1159BC are not.
"...Most sites in Greece (ca.260), Anatolia (ca.350), the Levant (ca.200), Mesopotamia (ca.30), the Indian subcontinent (ca.230), China (ca.20), Persia/Afghanistan (ca.50), Iberia (ca.70) which collapsed at around 2200+-200 BC, exhibit unambiguous signs of natural calamities and/or rapid abandonment. The proxy data detected in the marine, terrestrial, biological and archaeological records point to sudden ecological, climatic and social upheavals which appear to coincide with simultaneous sea- and lake-level changes, increased levels of seismic activity and widespread flood/tsunami disasters. The main problem in interconnecting this vast amount of data chronologically is the application of incoherent and imprecise dating methods in different areas of geological and climatological research..."
Sodom and Gomorrah
There have been excavations on the Lisan peninsula, which nearly cuts the southern part of the Dead Sea off from the rest of it. It is also different from the main Dead Sea in that it's mean depth is very different from the rest of the Dead Sea, only 10 m in average. It seems that there was a great catastrophe around 2200 BC that has destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah. The surface of the Dead Sea dropped suddenly by 100m around 2200 BC (Frumkin et al., The Holocene 1.3, 1991). If we take the story in Genesis for what it seems to indicate, the whole southern part of the Dead Sea may be an impact crater that was caused by a cosmic disaster, one piece in the 2200 BC disaster.
Posted 25 March 2008 - 02:38 PM
There was a widespread belief among ancient Mediterranean people -including the Egyptians- that iron actually came from heaven; clearly here an allusion to its meteoritic origin.
Today, the average number of meteorite finds is only 5 meteorites per year. Such scarcity is in spite of our sophisticated communication systems and greater scientific interest. A low number such as this could hardly have caused the widespread belief in antiquity that iron came from the sky, and many scientists are of the opinion, therefore, that meteorite falls occurred more frequently in the past - an hypothesis apparently supported by astrophysics research. The probability, therefore, of observing the fall of a large iron-meteorite and also recovering it was higher in our remote past than it is today. Indeed many sacred stones which were believed to have fallen from heaven, and accordingly worshipped in temples or shrines, were surely meteorites.
The Ephesians (Acts xix-35), for example, are said to have worshipped in the temple of Diana that symbol of her which fell from heaven. In the temple of Apollo in Delphi a stone (Roux, p.130), probably shaped like an ovoid/cone (later to be replaced by the well-known Omphalos) was believed to have come from Cronnos the sky-god, and was the object of much veneration. This stone of Cronnos was most likely a meteorite (Wainwright, Annal, Serv.xxviii, p.185). A conical iron-meteorite is said to have also been worshiped by the Phrygian in the 7th century BC (McCall, p.17). The conical black stone known as Elagalabus was worshipped in Emessa and was a meteorite (Daremberg & Sangrio, p.529). Not far from Emessa, in the temple of Heliopolis-Baalbek, were venerated black, conical stones (Hitti, p.312). The Nabataean god, Dushara, was worshipped in the form of an obelisk or an unhewn four cornered blackstone (ibid. p.385). Indeed, a modern example of such stone-worship is the much venerated blackstone kept in the Kaaba shrine in Mecca, Western Saudi Arabia, which is thought by geologists to be a meteorite recovered in antiquity
British Egyptologist G.A. Wainwright has convincingly argued that iron in the Old Kingdom Period was mostly obtained from iron-meteorites (Wainwright, JEA 18, p.3). It seems that man-made iron from terrestrial ores rarely contains nickel, whereas meteoritic iron contains a high proportion of this element, on average 12 percent. Wainwright states that ornamental beads made of iron dating as far back as Pre-Dynastic times have been analysed and shown to contain high levels of nickel, confirming their meteoritic origin (for a counter view see Dunham, JEA 28,p.57). Significantly the word Bja meaning iron in ancient Egyptian also meant the material of which heaven was made. It is therefore highly likely that meteoritic-iron was also imagined the stuff from which were made the reborn kings as star-gods (Wainwright, JEA 18, p.11). Certain passages in the Pyramid Texts are indeed very suggestive of such a concept: âThe kingâs bones are iron and the kingâs members are the imperishable starsâŠâ (pyr.2051). âI [the king] am pure, I take to myself my iron bonesâŠmy imperishable limbs are in the womb of Nutâ (pyr.530) âmy bones are iron and my limbs are the imperishable starsâ (pyr.1454).
It is also likely that chunks of iron-meteorite -which generally have a lustred, black appearance-were associated or even confused with black hard stones such as diorite, basalt and dark-grey granite found in Upper Egypt. To a primitive mind unfamiliar with iron and its chemical properties, the resemblance can be uncanny. Not surprisingly, black basalt was called âBja-Kamâ meaning âblack ironâ (Wallis Budge, p.210), suggesting that basalt, and possibly similar black hard stones viz. diorite and dark granite, were associated to meteoritic ironstone, and consequently to the âbonesâ of star-gods. Most capstones of monumental pyramids were probably made of granite (Edwards, pp.118,151). The almost-black granite capstone of the pyramid of Amenemhet III in the Cairo museum is a fine example of this. It was discovered in 1902 by Maspero, who remarked that its surface had been âmirrorâ polished (âpoli a miroirâŠâ -Maspero, Annal.Serv. iii, p.206). Such a description is typical for the appearance of a freshly fallen iron-meteorite. Amenemhet IIIâs capstone could well be the stylised man-made version of an oriented iron-meteorite symbolising his materialized star-soul. The two lines of carved hieroglyphic inscriptions ornating the base of the capstone were first discussed by Maspero (Maspero, Annal.Serv. iii, p.206), and later by Breasted (Breasted, p.73) and Piankoff (Piankoff, p.5). In the inscriptions several deities are evoked, among them supposedly the sun-god (as âThe Lord Of The Horizonâ) and Orion-Osiris, the great star-god of astral rebirth, depicted as a striding man holding a staff in one hand, and cupping a large star in the other. On one side of the capstone are carved two large eyes surmounted by a disc with feathered-wings; the inscription below states that âthe face of Amenemhet is open, he sees the Lord Of The Horizon as he sails in the skyâ (incidentally, this curious winged-face/head is also depicted in the Pyramid Texts in conjunction with âironâ: âHe has appeared upon the Stone (?), upon his throne, he has sharpened the iron by means of itâŠraise yourself, O king, gather your bones, take your headâŠO king, raise yourself as Min [the Phallic/fertility God], fly up to the sky and live with them, cause your wings to grow with your feathers on your headâŠâ (pyr.1945-8). Another inscription on the Amenemhet III capstone states: ââŠthe soul of King Amenemhet is higher than the heights of OrionâŠâ Breastedâs view that the inscriptions proves the solar symbolism of the capstone is surely incorrect, for it is fairly evident from such inscriptions that we are to consider the capstone not as the material representation of the sun-god but rather that of the kingâs star-soul, a progeny of Ra, not Ra himself. It is in this capacity that the soul of the king, now established as a star-object high above the base of the pyramid, does indeed participate in the eternal cycles of the sun-god and the ancestral star-gods as they sail across the sky each day.
The hieroglyphic sign for the word âpyramidâ was sometimes depicted as a pyramid with a yellow apex, suggesting that the granite capstones of pyramids may have been gilded (Edwards, p.276). An inscription found by Jequier at the pyramid of a queen called Udjebten supports this hypothesis, for it speaks of the gilded capstone of her pyramid (ibid.). A quasi-black granite capstone, the stylised representation of an oriented iron-meteorite, finely polished and covered with a gold skin would certainly bear potent symbolism associated to a primitive concept of a âliving starâ i.e. a star-soul shining in the sky, the bones of which were imagined to be made of iron or bja-kam, and the âfleshâ of gold. Evidence of this idea may be in these passages: âO King, raise yourself upon your iron bones and golden members, for this body of yours belongs to a godâŠ may your flesh be born to life and may your life be more than the life of the stars in their season of lifeâŠâ (pyr. 2244). âI [the king] row Ra when traversing the sky, even I a star of goldâŠâ (pyr. 886-9); and (pyr. 904) instructs the dead king to âbe a soul like a living starâ.
Posted 25 March 2008 - 02:49 PM
Posted 17 April 2008 - 06:10 PM
In earlier post i have mentioned the growing evidence that large scale impacts were responsible for the collapse of the early and late bronzre age civilizations worldwide in about 2300 BC and again at about 1200 BC
There is strong evidence for a major impact occuring around 1100 - 1200 BC and with this in mind it is interesting to look at the events surrounding the exodus and the possible dating of the event, which i give below at about 1400 BC (though there is also strong evidence for a date of around 1200 BC). Was this a period of intense imapct activity ?
"In the first place, that we came out of another country into Egypt; and that withal our deliverance out of it was so ancient in time as to have preceded the siege of Troy almost a thousand years"
Josephus Flavius, Against Apion Book 1:16
The generally accepted date for the siege of Troy is circa 1280 B.C.E.. If the Exodus took place a thousand years earlier, the flight of the Israelites would have occurred when the Canaanite empire was in decline, just prior to the disintegration of the Old Kingdom of Egypt through invasion by Libyans and Bedouins from the east
"And if Ctesias says that the Assyrian power is many years older than the Greek, the exodus of Moses from Egypt will appear to have taken place in the forty-second year of the Assyrian empire, in the thirty-second year of the reign of Belochus, in the time of Amosis the Egyptian, and of Inachus the Argive."
- - Clement of Alexandria, Stomta
The Old Assyrian empire can be dated from 2000-1450 B.C.E. which would place the Exodus near the beginning of the second millenium B.C.E.
"And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord."
- I Kings 6:1
"Thiele's chronology of the Israelite kings [The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (1983)...places Solomon's coronation in circa 931 BC. Thus the temple was founded in 928 and Moses brought the Israelites out of Egypt four hundred and eighty years earlier in circa 1447 BC. This date for Exodus is supported by Judges 11:26 where it states that around three hundred years had elapsed from the Conquest of the Promised Land to the judgeship of Jephthah (c. 1110 BC."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995), p. 249
"Artapanus writes that a pharaoh named Palmanothes was persecuting the Israelites. His daughter Merris adopted a Hebrew child who grew up to be called prince Mousos. Merris married a pharaoh KhenephrĂȘs. Prince Mousos grew up to administer the land on behalf of this pharaoh. He led a military campaign against the Ethiopians who were invading Egypt; however, upon his return, KhenephrĂȘs grew jealous of his popularity. Mousos then fled to Arabia to return when KhenephrĂȘs died and lead the Israelites to freedom."
"...Artapanus' Greek name 'KhenephrĂȘs' represents the Egyptian royal name 'Khaneferre' meaning 'the perfection of Re shines in the horizon'."
"...Only one pharaoh in the whole of Egyptian history is known to have taken this name. Following the death of Neferhotep I and his short reigned son, Sihathor, a younger brother of the former took the throne as the twenty-third ruler of the 13th Dynasty. At birth he was given the name Sobekhotep ('Sobek is content') but he took at his coronation the prenomen 'Khaneferre'. The great American Egyptologist, James Henry Breasted, assessing the political situation during the SIP [Second Intermediary Period], was of the opinion that this Sobekhotep was the greatest king of the era. So the birth of Moses coincided with the coming to the throne of a new, powerful pharaoh named Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV and it was in his reign that Moses was raised as a prince of Egypt."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995), p. 255
"Josephus in his Antiquities of the Jews, with access to very old manuscripts and writing in AD 93, also mentioned Moses' Ethiopian or Kushite war. Here, Moses led an Egyptian army down the Nile valley, past the Third Cataract, deep into Kush (modern Ethiopia). In the British Museum is a stela which tells of a 13th Dynasty pharaoh undertaking a campaign south into the region of Kush. That pharaoh is none other than Khaneferre, the step-father of Moses according to Artapanus. He is the only 13th Dynasty pharaoh who is recorded as having campaigned into Upper Nubia or Ethiopia"
"Excavations have been continuing for over 30 years near the Egyptian village of Tell ed-Daba. Here in the Nile Delta region, a large Middle Bronze Age settlement has been uncovered. This is the region of Goshen and the excavation is at the location of the biblical city of Raamses or Pi-Ramesse, the city of Ramesses II (Exodus 1:11). Settlement here spans a period from the 12th to the 20th Dynasties of Egypt. The ancient city at its peak covered an area of ten square kilometres, making it one of the largest cities of the ancient world. It existed for 800 years before being abandoned, when its stones was used to build Tanis."
"No Israelite settlement has ever been found in the 19th Dynasty occupational levels where the orthodox chronology predicted is stratigraphical locus. Within the stata of New Kingdom Pi-Ramesse (biblical Raamses) so far no evidence has been unearthed to support the conventional hypothesis that a large Asiatic population resided there."
"The only period in Egyptian history with incontrovertible archaeological evidence for a large Asiatic population in the eastern delta (i.e. Goshen/Kessan) is the Second Intermediate Period..."
"The Israelite Sojourn in Egypt began in the late 12th Dynasty and continued throughout most of the 13th Dynasty. It is represented in Egypt's archaeological record by the Asiatic culture known as Middle Bronze IIA. The main settlement of the Israelites in Egypt was located at the city of Avaris in the region of Goshen. Their archaeological remains are represented by the dwellings and tombs of Tell ed-Daba stata H to G/1."
"...An analysis of the graves at Tell ed-Daba has shown that there were more females than males in the burial population of Avaris."
In addition, "sixty-five per cent of all the burials were those of children under the age of eighteen months. Based on modern statistical evidence obtained from pre-modern societies we would expect the infant mortality rate to be around twenty to thirty percent."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995)
"But the Israelites were fruitful and multiplied greatly and became exceedingly numerous, so that the land was filled with them."
- Exodus 1:8-14
"Before Moses, the Bible records that the Israelites were enslaved by their Egyptian hosts (Exodus 1:8-14). In the Brooklyn Museum resides a papyrus scroll numbered Brooklyn 35:1446 which was acquired in the late 19th century by Charles Wilbour. This dates to the reign of Sobekhotep III, the predecessor of Neferhotep I and so the pharaoh who reigned one generation before Moses. This papyrus is a decree by the pharaoh for a transfer of slaves. Of the 95 names of slaves mentioned in the letter, 50% are Semitic in origin. What is more, it lists the names of these slaves in the original Semitic language and then adds the Egyptian name that each had been assigned, which is something the Bible records the Egyptians as doing, cf. Joseph's name given to him by pharaoh (Genesis 41:45).
"The reduction in the male Asiatic population is not due to a series of (unattested) wars in the north but rather as a result of a deliberate policy on the part of the Egyptian state to reduce the perceived Israelite threat by means of male infanticide."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995), p. 278
"The king of Egypt said to the Hebrew midwives, whose names were Shiphrah and Puah,'When you help the Hebrew women in childbirth and observe them on the delivery stool, if it is a boy, kill him; but if it is a girl, let her live.'
Then Pharaoh gave this order to all his people: 'Every boy that is born [Masoretic Text; Samaritan Pentateuch, Septuagint and Targums 'born to the Hebrews'] you must throw into the Nile, but let every girl live.'"
- Exodus 1:15-16, 22
"At the end of stratum G/1 at Tell ed-Daba, which is roughly dated to the middle of the 13th Dynasty, Bietak and his archaeological team began to uncover a gruesome scene. All over the city of Avaris they found shallow burial pits into which the victims of some terrible disaster had been hurriedly cast. There were no careful interments of the deceased. The bodies were not arranged in the proper burial fashion but rather thrown into the mass graves, one on top of the other. There were no grave goods placed with the corpses as was usually the custom."
"...Analysis of the site archaeology suggests that a large part of the remaining population of the town abandoned their homes and departed from Avaris en masse. The site was then reoccupied after an interval of unknown duration by Asiatics who were not 'Egyptianised' like the previous population of stratum G."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995), p. 279
Rohl asserts that these next Asiatic occupants were the Hyksos, who invaded Egypt at the end of the Middle Kingdom and ruled the country for more than two centuries.
"Old Midrash sources narrate that the walls of Pithom and Raamses fell and were partly swallowed by the earth, and that many Israelites perished on that occasion."
- velikov.htmlImmanuel Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos
"Tutimaos [the pharaoh Dudimose, one of the later rulers of the 13th Dynasty]. In his reign, for what cause I know not, a blast of God smote us; and unexpectedly, from the regions of the East, invaders of obscure race marched in confidence of victory against our land. By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow; and having overpowered the rulers of the land, they then burned our cities ruthless, razed to the ground the temples of the gods, and treated all the natives with a cruel hostility, massacring some and leading into slavery the wives and children of others. Finally, they appointed as king one of their number who name was Salitis..."
- Josephus, quoting Manetho in Against Apion, Book 1:14
Using the Royal Canon of Turin and dating backwards from Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV (circa 1529-1510 in Rohl's new chronology) through twelve kings in the 13th Dynasty to Dudimose "gives an approximate date range for the accession of Dudimose of 1457 to 1444 BC. The biblical date for the Exodus is 1447 BC and so Dudimose was in all likelihood the Pharaoh of the Exodus."
"...Biblical tradition gives a birth-date for Moses of 1527 BC. He would then have been between seventy-two and eighty-five years old at the accession of Dudimose....The Old Testament informs us that Moses was eighty years old at the time of Exodus..."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995), p. 282
"But as the king still persisted in his folly, Moses caused hail and earthquakes by night, so that those who fled from the earthquakes were killed by the hail, and those who sought shelter form the hail were destroyed by the earthquakes. And at that time all the houses fell in and most of the temples."
- Artapanus, Peri Ioudaion
"Forsooth, the land turns round as does a potter's wheel. The towns are destroyed. Upper Egypt has become dry (wastes?).
"All is ruin."
"The residence is overturned in a minute."
"Oh, that the earth would cease from noise, and tumult (uproar) be no more."
- Papyrus of Ipuwer 2:8, 2:11, 3:13, 7:4
"In Hebrew the word raash signifies 'noise', 'commotions', as well as 'earthquake'. Earthquakes are often accompanied by loud sounds, subterranean rumbling and roaring, and this acoustic phenomenon gives the name to the upheaval itself."
- Immanuel Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos
"And it came to pass, that at midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon."
- Exodus 12:29
"The Hebrew word for 'first born' is bekore whilst the Hebrew for 'chosen' is bakhur (with the meaning of 'choice youth'). Both words appear to stem from bakhar meaning 'prime root'. There is a clear connection in the Bible between these two words. When God refers to 'Israel, my chosen' the phrase in Hebrew is either Israel bechiri or Israel bechori; when God refers to 'Israel, my first-born' the Hebrew is Israel bekhori. We may therefore understand the passage concerning the death of the Egyptian first-born as a literary device which should better be understood as 'the chosen of Egypt' or, in modern parlance, 'the flower of Egypt'. Egypt's future was cut short by Yahweh's punishment, perhaps personified in the death of the crown prince, the first-born son of Pharaoh Dudimose."
- David M. Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible from Myth to History (1995), p. 284
"According to the Haggadic tradition, not only the firstborn but the majority of the population in Egypt was killed during the tenth plague."
- Immanuel Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos
"...There was not a house where there was not one dead."
- Exodus 12:30
Could it be that a major impact occured at this time, creating eathquakes devastastion and the all to commonly associated aftermath of disease thus "openning the gates" for the Exodus to occur ?
By the way Professor Kitchen dates the Exodus to around 1200 BC more in line with an impact event
Posted 19 April 2008 - 09:42 PM
You see there is a lot, and i mean a lot, of debate over the chronology of the egyptians, there are no definitive dates given to the accesion and deaths of the pharaohs and it is now believed that the were many co-regencies
So dating the Exodus ( if it actually occured) is always going to be tricky. However I have always been struck by the similarity with the ideals of the Pharaoh Akhenaten and Moses,
As a child i always thought there was something more to the story of Moses than i was given. His name alone fascinated me when i read of the many similar named pharaoh's such as Thutmose, Ahmoses, Kamose etc
And even as a kid i never felt quite comfortable with the idea of a foundling being raised to such a high level in the egyptian hierachy.
So let me briefly give this theory. Moses was not a Jew found and brought up by pharohs' daughter
This is the original "legend" of Sargon of Assyria :
"Sargon, strong king, king of Agade, am I. My mother was a high priestess, my father I do not know. My paternal kin inhabit the mountain region. My city (of birth) is Azupiranu, which lies on the bank of the Euphrates. My mother, a high priestess, conceived me, in secret she bore me. She placed me in a reed basket, with bitumen she caulked my hatch. She abandoned me to the river from which I could not escape. The river carried me along: to Aqqi, the water drawer, it brought me. Aqqi, the water drawer, when immersing his bucket lifted me up. Aqqi, the water drawer, raised me as his adopted son. Aqqi, the water drawer, set me to his garden work. During my garden work, Istar loved me (so that) 55 years I ruled as king"
My belief is that Moses was a high priest ( his training in ALL things egyptian is never questioned in any sources), more importantly a high priest of the Akhenaten sect. ( Or some have argued Akhenaten himself !!)
Akhenaten was born as Amenhotep IV, he was probably the father of Tutankhaten later to be known as Tutankhamun. He created a new "capital" and center of worship at Akhetaten at a site today known as Armana
Akhenaten also oversaw the construction of some of the most massive temple complexes in ancient Egypt, including one at Karnak, close to the old temple of Amun. In these new temples, Aten was worshipped in the open sunlight, rather than in dark temple enclosures, as had been the previous custom
The name changes are critical to the story. Amenhotep IV developed a new monotheistic religion ( one god) worshiping the Aten as opposed to the older Amun-Ra
"Initially, Akhenaten presented Aten as a variant of the familiar supreme deity Amun-Ra (itself the result of an earlier rise to prominence of the cult of Amun, resulting in Amun becoming merged with the sun god Ra), in an attempt to put his ideas in a familiar Egyptian religious context. However, by Year 9 of his reign Akhenaten declared that Aten was not merely the supreme god, but the only god, and that he, Akhenaten, was the only intermediary between Aten and his people. He ordered the defacing of Amun's temples throughout Egypt, and in a number of instances inscriptions of the plural 'gods' were also removed."
Note the first commandments given by the god of the israelites to Moses:
"I am the LORD your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slavery. You shall have no other gods before Me..."
"Do not make an image or any likeness of what is in the heavens above..."
Armana is of special interest to historians because it was there that a great horde of official "letters" were found
"Important evidence about Akhenaten's reign and foreign policy has been provided by the discovery of the Amarna Letters, a cache of diplomatic correspondence discovered in modern times at el-Amarna, the modern designation of the Akhetaten site. This correspondence comprises a priceless collection of incoming messages on clay tablets, sent to Akhetaten from various subject rulers through Egyptian military outposts, and from the foreign rulers (recognized as "Great Kings") of Mitanni, Babylon, Assyria and Hatti. The governors and kings of Egypt's subject domains also wrote frequently to plead for gold from Pharaoh, and also complained of being snubbed and cheated by him."
In support of the (rather shaky) theory that Akhenaten was Moses we have evidence of widespread plauge and disease occuring at Armana, note the plauges whic precceded the exodus.
"This Amarna period is also associated with a serious outbreak of a pandemic, possibly the plague, or polio, or perhaps the world's first recorded outbreak of influenza, which came from Egypt and spread throughout the Middle East, killing Suppiluliuma I, the Hittite King. Influenza is a disease associated with the close proximity of water fowl, pigs and humans, and its origin as a pandemic disease may be due to the development of agricultural systems that allow the mixing of these animals and their wastes. Some of the first archaeological evidence for this agricultural system is during the Amarna period of Ancient Egypt, and the pandemic that followed this period throughout the Ancient Near East may have been the earliest recorded outbreak of influenza. However, the precise nature of this Egyptian plague remains unknown and Asia has also been suggested as a possible site of origin of pandemic influenza in humans.The prevalence of disease may help explain the rapidity with which the site of Akhetaten was subsequently abandoned. It may also explain why later generations considered the gods to have turned against the Amarna monarchs. The black plague has also been suggested by Zahi Hawass due to the fact that at Amarna the traces of the plague have been found"
With Akhenaten's death, the Aten cult he had founded gradually fell out of favor. Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun in Year 2 of his reign (1332 BC) and abandoned the city of Akhetaten, which eventually fell into ruin. His successors Ay and Horemheb disassembled temples Akhenaten had built, including the temple at Thebes, using them as a source of easily available building materials and decorations for their own temples.
Finally, Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun (was he murdered ?), and Ay were excised from the official lists of Pharaohs, which instead reported that Amenhotep III was immediately succeeded by Horemheb. This is thought to be part of an attempt by Horemheb to delete all trace of Atenism and the pharaohs associated with it from the historical record. Akhenaten's name never appeared on any of the king lists compiled by later Pharaohs and it was not until the late 19th century that his identity was re-discovered and the surviving traces of his reign were unearthed by archaeologists.
I like to think that since it is hard to match the dates of the exodus with him it is more likely that Moses was a follower, initate, high priest of the Akhenhaten "heresey"
And of course to bring us back to impactors !! it is interesting to note that this peiod, when dating is especially difficult, is known as a chronological "Dark Age"
"Beginning with the Akkadian Empire around 2300 BC, the chronological evidence firms up, with various overlapping and interacting dynasties reasonably well attested to in the archaeological record. Essentially, for this period, a good picture can be drawn of who ruled after who, more or less how long they ruled, and how dynasties interacted with each other in battle, trade, and diplomacy. This relatively coherent chronology comes to a halt with the end of the Babylonian Dynasty III (Kassite) around 1200 BC.
The Dark Age - sometime around the fall of Babylonian Dynasty III (Kassite) around 1200 BC things in the ancient Near East take a serious turn for the worse. In the east, the Mari and Mitanni are overrun, apparently by the Sea People who similarly trouble Egypt. In the north, the Hittite Empire is overrun by parties as yet unidentified. In the south, Arameans migrate in and crush both the Assyrians and the Babylonians. Meanwhile a major drought is punishing the entire region, extending as far away as Mycenae and Libya. Essentially, almost anyone capable of putting stylus to a cuneiform tablet is too busy running for their lives to record history. Note that due to the thin nature of early Kassite, Assyrian and Hittite records, the Dark Age is considered by some scholars to run all the way back to the fall of Babylon in 1531 BC."
I am almost convinced that massive widespread impacts occured at this time and they were the cause of these dark age events
Posted 19 May 2008 - 06:58 PM
At some time around 2300 BC, give or take a century or two, a large number of the major civilisations of the world collapsed, simultaneously it seems. The Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, the Old Kingdom in Egypt, the Early Bronze Age civilisation in Israel, Anatolia and Greece, as well as the Indus Valley civilisation in India, the Hilmand civilisation in Afghanistan and the Hongshan Culture in China - the first urban civilisations in the world - all fell into ruin at more or less the same time
I was doing some reasearch on comets and came across some interesting ideas put forward by Tom Slattery, in spring 1997 we were lucky enough to see the comet hale-Bopp in the night skies, as you can imagine i went all "starry eyed" and my cats kept well away from for fear of being sacrificed.
Now here is an odd thing about Hale-Bopp, it was a newly discovered comet and it was calculated that it's last appearance should have been in 2213 BC. Now knowing the importance our ancestors placed on celestial events it would seem probable that this appearance would have made quite an "impact" on them, however as the researchers busied themselves looking for ancient references to this event they came across nothing, Nada, Zilch. Searching all the recorded history of the worlds great civilizations of the era they could not find a single reference to the comet, why is this ?
Well if we assume that the comet's trajectory calaculations are accurate, that is it did not aquire it's solar orbit recently due to some unforseen events then we have to assume that the comet did pass whitin visible distance of the earth at around about the same time that the worlds major early bronze age civilisations collapsed
Was the comet involved in the collpase ? Did a fragment impact the earth casing so much disruption that the events only survive in myths and legends such as those i have mentioned earlier ? was it responsible for the sudden climatic changes that occured at this time ? ( and come to think of it could comets still have an imapct on our climate ?)
It seems that the comet should have arrived around the reign of the pharaoh Pepi II and what followed his reign was an era of chaos, famine and uncertainty known as the first intermediate period when the two kingdoms fell apart
Is it possible that such chaotic times hampered official documentation of the event such that it only survived as a word of mouth story ?
At about the same time the Akkadian civilisation in Mesopotamia collapsed and there are records of sudden unfavourable climatic changes occuring at this time
"At 2200 B.C., a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation, subsequent to a volcanic eruption, induced a considerable degradation of land-use conditions. After four centuries of urban life, this abrupt climate change evidently caused the abandonment of Tel Leilan."
This may all be conjecture but add it to the other evidence i have given you and..well it does seem very likely that "something" extraordinary occured around this period in our history..could it happen again ? - of course !! When ?...????
Posted 01 June 2008 - 06:20 PM
To help sort through decades of scientific research and a century of science fiction, Iowa State university professor Bong Wie is establishing the first-ever Asteroid Deflection Research Center.
The Center will look at all available technologies that could be deployed to some day keep a space rock from slamming into the Earth and ending civilization.
Posted 06 June 2008 - 02:30 AM
Posted 29 November 2008 - 04:06 AM
Investigation of the fireball that lit up the skies of Alberta and Saskatchewan on November 20 has determined that an asteroid fragment weighing approximately 10 tonnes entered the Earth's atmosphere over the prairie provinces last Thursday evening. And University of Calgary researcher Alan Hildebrand has outlined a region in western Saskatchewan where chunks of the desk-sized space rock are expected to be found
Posted 11 January 2009 - 06:51 AM
Historical records tell us that from the beginning of March 536 AD, a fog of dust blanketed the atmosphere for 18 months. During this time, "the sun gave no more light than the moon", global temperatures plummeted and crops failed, says Dallas Abbot of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in New York. The cause has long been unknown, but theories have included a vast volcanic eruption or an impact from space.
Now Abbott and her team have found the first direct evidence that multiple impacts caused the haze.
0 user(s) are reading this topic
0 members, 0 guests, 0 anonymous users